North Carolina
Cooperative Extension Service



The NCSU Water Quality Group Newsletter

Number 81                           January 1997                           ISSN 1062-9149


Monitoring of both land treatment and water quality is necessary to document the effectiveness of nonpoint source pollution controls in restoring water quality. The Section 319 National Monitoring Program, administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, is designed to support watershed projects throughout the country that meet a minimum set of project planning, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation requirements. The requirements are designed to lead to successful documentation of project effectiveness with respect to water quality protection or improvement. The National Monitoring Program projects comprise a small subset of nonpoint source control projects funded under Section 319 of the Clean Water Act Amendments of 1987. The following article continues a series describing these projects.

Walnut Creek (Iowa)
Section 319 National Monitoring Program Project

Carol Thompson
Iowa Department of Natural Resources

Project Synopsis

The Walnut Creek Watershed Restoration and Water Quality Monitoring Project began in 1995 as a nonpoint source pollution monitoring program in relation to the watershed habitat restoration and agricultural management changes implemented by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) at Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge and Prairie Learning Center in central Iowa. In 1996, the project was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as a Section 319 National Monitoring Program project. Agencies and organizations participating in the project include Iowa Department of Natural Resources , USFWS, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), University of Iowa Hygienic Laboratory, Farm Service Agency, and EPA.

Walnut Creek and Squaw Creek are warmwater streams. Their watersheds are primarily agricultural, dominated by row crop, mainly corn and soybeans. The Walnut Creek basin is 12,860 acres in size. The Squaw Creek basin covers 11,710 acres. Both creeks have been channelized in part; they are characterized by silty bottoms and high, often vertical, banks. Deposition of up to four feet of post-settlement alluvium is not uncommon.

The project is located in the Southern Iowa Drift Plain, an area characterized by steeply rolling hills and well-developed drainage. Dominant soils are silty clay loams, silt loams, or clay loams formed in loess and till. Average annual rainfall for the project area is approximately 32 inches.

There are two components to the land use changes being implemented by USFWS: 1) ecosystem resources restoration to tall-grass prairie with savanna components where applicable and 2) mandatory use of improved agricultural management practices on farmlands prior to conversion. In the riparian areas, 100-foot vegetative filter strips will be seeded along all of the streams in the Refuge whose riparian areas are not already in grass or timber. Riparian and upland wetlands will also be restored or allowed to revert to wetlands by elimination of tile lines.

Cropland management within the Refuge is controlled by the USFWS management team. Farming is done on a contractual, cash-rent basis, with management measures specified; some flexible, some more prescriptive. The measures include soil conservation practices; nutrient management through soil testing, yield goals, and nutrient credit records; and integrated pest management. Crop scouting for pest management is mandatory for all farms on Refuge lands, as are no-till production methods. Insecticide use is highly restricted and herbicide use is also controlled in order to minimize adverse impacts on non-target plants and animals.

The Section 319 project will employ a paired watershed approach as well as an upstream-downstream, before-and-after assessment to evaluate reductions in nutrients and pesticides resulting from decreased active row crop agriculture. The treatment watershed is Walnut Creek; the paired site is Squaw Creek. Both creeks and their tributaries will be monitored for biological and chemical parameters.

Project Time Frame

April 1995 to September 1998

Pre-Project Water Quality

Both Walnut and Squaw creeks are affected by agricultural nonpoint source pollutants, including sediment, nutrients, pesticides, and animal waste. Water quality in these streams is typical of many of Iowa's small warmwater streams: water quality varies significantly with changes in discharge and runoff. Streambank erosion has contributed to significant sedimentation in the creeks.

Three pre-project water quality studies were completed. Data were collected by USFWS during the pre-implementation period (1991). The Tri-State Monitoring Project collected data in the Walnut Creek basin from 1992 to 1994. Two sets of storm event samples were collected in 1995.

In 1991, nitrate-nitrogen concentrations ranged from 14 to 19 mg/l with a mean of 16. Atrazine concentrations were from 0.24 to 1.2 ug/l. The Tri-State data were similar, with nitrogen from 5 to 44 mg/l, averaging 14.5 mg/l and atrazine from 0.1 to 2.7 ug/l. The event sampling in 1994 had fewer samples, but nitrogen ranged from 2.1 to 11.0 mg/l (avg. 6.1) in Walnut Creek and from 0.1 to 20 (avg. 10.0) in the tributaries. Atrazine in the main stem of Walnut Creek ranged from <<0.1 to 0.3 ug/l and was higher in the tributaries (up to 3.1 ug/l).

Primary biological productivity is low and the condition of the fish community is poor.

Project Water Quality Objectives

Nonpoint Source Pollution Control Strategy

The best management practices for row crop production include specific erosion control measures along with nutrient and pesticide management. The primary land treatment activity, however, is to remove 5,000 acres of cropland from production by converting it to native tall grass prairie. Wetlands and riparian zones will also be restored. Limited nutrient and pesticide management is anticipated for the remainder of the Walnut Creek watershed.

Water Quality Monitoring Design

Both paired watershed and upstream-downstream, before-and-after monitoring designs will be used. In the paired watershed study, the outlets of Walnut Creek (treatment) and Squaw Creek (control) watersheds will be monitored. Upstream-downstream, before-and-after monitoring will be conducted in both watersheds.

Biological variables being monitored include fecal coliform, macroinvertebrates, and fisheries. Chemical and physical variables include alkalinity, ammonia, bentazon, biochemical oxygen demand, bromide, calcium, chloride, common herbicides, dicamba, dissolved oxygen, fluoride, magnesium, nitrate, orthophosphate, pH, phosphate, potassium, sodium, specific conductivity, sulfate, suspended solids (SS), and turbidity. Covariates to be measured are precipitation and water discharge.

The outlets at Walnut and Squaw Creeks are gaged, as is an upstream station on the main stem of Walnut Creek. At these three stations, water discharge and SS will be monitored daily, and data compiled for storm event statistical evaluation.

Ten stations are being monitored biweekly to monthly during March through July and in September. Four stations are sampled once each in August, October, December, and February.

Water Quality Data Management and Analysis

All USGS data will be reported in WATSTORE, the USGS national database. The project will use ARC/INFO to record and analyze land use changes. Statistical analyses of water quality data for trend detection will be completed as deemed necessary. Water quality variables and land use activities will be tracked using EPA's NonPoint Source Management System (NPSMS) software.

Data management and reporting are handled by the Iowa Department of Natural Resources Geological Survey Bureau, following the Nonpoint Source Monitoring and Reporting Requirements for Watershed Implementation Grants. All water quality data are entered into STORET.

Information, Education, and Publicity

The educational commitment and resources available through the Refuge will make possible educational and demonstration activities far beyond the scope of those that could typically be accomplished by a Section 319 National Monitoring Program project. Discussion of the relationship between land use changes and water quality improvements will constitute an integral part of these educational efforts. In addition, opportunities will be created for interested Refuge visitors to acquire, use, and interpret hydrologic and water quality data for the watershed. Both streamside and visitor center-based activities and educational stations are planned. Presentations on the watershed can be readily tailored to school, environmental, or agricultural interest groups. It is anticipated that visitors to the Refuge will number in the tens of thousands annually, facilitating exposure of large numbers of residents to information about the land use changes and monitoring activities in the watershed.

USFWS will utilize the Refuge as a demonstration area for landscape restoration projects. Information will be disseminated to visitors and invited groups, the public (through published reports), and the news media. The project is also serving as a demonstration site for riparian restoration and small wetland restoration.

During 1996, several tours were provided to teacher groups, natural history organizations, and surrounding landowners. A visitor center will open in the spring of 1997.

For Further Information

Administration and Water Quality Monitoring

Carol A. Thompson
Iowa Department of Natural Resources
Geological Survey Bureau
109 Trowbridge Hall
Iowa City, IA 52242
(319) 335-1581; Fax: (319) 335-2754

Land Treatment

Richard Birger
Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge and Prairie Learning Center
P.O. Box 399
Prairie City, IA 50228
(515) 994-2415; Fax: (515) 994-2104


Systems of Best Management Practices for Controlling Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution

Deanna L. Osmond, Jean Spooner, and Daniel E. Line
NCSU Water Quality Group

The first step in reducing agricultural nonpoint source pollution is to focus on the primary water quality problem within the watershed: the water quality use impairment must be identified and the type and source of pollutants must be defined. Once the problem has been clearly defined and documented, the critical area can be identified. The critical area is the area that contributes the majority of the pollutant to the water resource. Land treatment should then be implemented on the critical area.

Land treatment consists of the installation or utilization of best management practices (BMPs). Best management practices are used to control the generation or delivery of pollutants from agricultural activities to water resources and to prevent impacts to the physical and biological integrity of surface and ground water. BMPs can be either structural (for example, waste lagoons, terraces, sediment basins, or fencing) or they can be managerial (for instance, rotational grazing, fertilizer or pesticide management, or conservation tillage). Both types of BMPs require good management to be effective in reducing agricultural nonpoint source pollution.

Systems of Best Management Practices

The installation or use of one structural or management BMP is rarely sufficient to control the pollutant of concern. Combinations of BMPs that control the same pollutant are generally most effective. These combinations, or systems, of BMPs can be specifically tailored for particular agricultural and environmental conditions, as well as for a particular pollutant.

Systems of BMPs are required to effectively control pollutant sources in critical areas. A BMP system is any combination of BMPs used together to comprehensively control a pollutant from the same source and same cause. When a pollutant is coming from more than one source, or is caused by different processes, a separate BMP system should be designed to reduce pollutant loss from each source or cause.

Transport of agricultural pollutants to surface and ground water can be controlled by

  • minimizing pollutant load at the source;

  • retarding the transport of the pollutant, either by reducing water transported, and thus the amount of the pollutant transported, or through chemical or biological transformation; or

  • remediating or intercepting the pollutant before or after it reaches the water resource.

    An individual BMP can only control a pollutant at its source, during transport, or at the water's edge. Systems of BMPs are generally more effective in controlling the pollutant since they can be used at two or more points in the pollutant delivery system. For example, the objective of many agricultural nonpoint source pollution projects is to reduce the loss of soil from cropland. A system of BMPs can be designed to reduce soil detachment, thus reducing the potential for soil to erode, and also to retard off-site transport of eroded soil. Conservation tillage system (Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) code 329) can be used to reduce the amount of on-site soil loss. Field borders (NRCS code 386) can be used to reduce sediment transport and sediment retention basins (NRCS code 412) can be used to intercept the sediment.

    Systems of BMPs can be separated into three categories:

  • treatment redundancy,

  • necessary diversification, and

  • a combination of the first two.

    Systems that combine individual BMPs to treat a pollutant at different points in the pollutant delivery system fit into the treatment redundancy category. The previous example of a BMP system comprised of conservation tillage, field borders, and sediment basins falls into the treatment redundancy BMP system category.

    Sometimes one BMP cannot be used without an accompanying BMP. For example, if it is necessary to fence cows out of a stream and there are no alternative water sources, watering devices must be installed if the riparian area is fenced. This type of BMP system is an example of a necessary diversification BMP system.

    In some cases, a BMP system represents both categories. An example of such a BMP system is an animal waste control system. Some components of an animal waste control system are utilized so that other components can function (for example, concrete linings or sub-surface drains). Other components, such as lagoons and waste utilization plans, are used to provide treatment redundancy for the pollutant.

    There is no single "best" BMP system to control a particular pollutant. Rather the BMP system should be determined based on the type of pollutant; the source of the pollutant; the agricultural, climatic, and environmental conditions; the economic situation of the farm operator; the experience of the system designers; and the acceptability of alternative BMPs to the producer. For example, a similar water quality problem existed in nonpoint source pollution control projects conducted in Utah and Florida under the federally sponsored Rural Clean Water Program (RCWP) (see NWQEP NOTES issue #58). In both projects, excess phosphorus from dairy runoff was causing eutrophic conditions in the receiving water resource. Animal waste management BMP systems were installed in both projects. In the Florida project, seven individual BMPs were needed to control the animal manure in barnyard areas (see also NWQEP NOTES issue #51), whereas in Utah only five BMPs were needed. Some of the same BMP components were used in both projects, while other BMPs were different. The Utah project used the following individual animal waste management BMPs: waste management system (NRCS code 312), waste storage structure (NRCS code 313), diversion (NRCS code 362), waste storage pond (NRCS code 425), and waste utilization (NRCS code 633). The Florida project used all of the BMPs used by the Utah project, except waste utilization; in addition, the Florida project used dike (NRCS code 356), concrete lining (NRCS code 428), and pipeline (NRCS code 430).

    In both cases, project personnel implemented the most appropriate set of BMPs for the environmental conditions. The regions in which the two projects were located have significantly different climatic, ecological, and soil characteristics, requiring different approaches to mitigate animal waste problems. In Florida, yearly rainfall is approximately 50 inches per year, whereas in Utah, annual precipitation is generally in the 16-inch range, and surface water flow is from snowmelt.

    A system of BMPs designed to address a specific pollutant from a particular source must comprehensively address the pollution problem. In the Oregon RCWP project (see NWQEP NOTES issue #52), dairy farmers installed an animal waste management BMP system to reduce fecal coliform runoff into an important shellfish-producing estuary. Although 12 individual BMPs comprised the animal waste management system, these installations did not qualify as an effective BMP system because they only addressed manure storage and were not comprehensive in controlling both the pollutant source and delivery of the pollutant to the Tillamook Bay estuary. Complete and effective control of the bacterial and nutrient contamination reaching Tillamook Bay required that waste application management be employed: land application of manure had to be conducted at the appropriate season, time, and rate. It was also necessary to include waste utilization as part of the BMP system.

    Evaluating BMP System Effectiveness

    Systems of BMPs can be measured for effectiveness. In the Florida RCWP project, a greater than 50% reduction in total phosphorus concentrations was documented on the basis of water quality monitoring at the watershed outlet and in subwatersheds where BMP systems had been implemented. In contrast, water quality monitoring in subwatersheds where little land treatment had been implemented, and where cattle densities had increased, showed increases in total phosphorus concentrations. These results supported the conclusion that the system of BMPs implemented was effective in reducing phosphorus delivery to Lake Okeechobee, the water resource being affected by dairy farm runoff.


    BMP systems are more effective at controlling agricultural nonpoint source pollution than are individual BMPs because BMP systems minimize the impact of a pollutant at the source, during the transport process, and through remediation or interception. However, systems of BMPs constitute only part of an effective land treatment strategy. In order for a land treatment strategy to be really effective, properly designed BMP systems must be placed in the correct locations in the watershed (critical areas) and the extent of land treatment must be sufficient to achieve water quality improvements.

    Because financial resources are generally limited, BMP system implementation should be prioritized. Systems of BMPs should first be implemented at the locations in the critical area that contribute the largest proportion of the pollutant of concern. The remaining critical area locations can then be treated with BMP systems as feasible, based on availability of funds.


    Gale, J.A., D.E. Line, D.L. Osmond, S.W. Coffey, J. Spooner, J.A. Arnold, T.J. Hoban, and R.C. Wimberley. 1993. Evaluation of the Experimental Rural Clean Water Program. National Water Quality Evaluation Project, NCSU Water Quality Group, Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, (published by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) EPA-841- R-93-005, 559p.

    NRCS. 1994. National Handbook of Conservation Practices. Natural Resource Conservation Service (formerly Soil Conservation Service), U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.


    Information and Education Guidebook

    Coulter, K., R. Harrison, and U. Agena. 1995. Information and Education Guidebook for Iowa Water Quality Projects. Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Des Moines, IA. 150p.

    Informing and educating targeted agricultural and urban audiences is a key aspect of any water quality project or initiative designed to improve local water quality. Recognizing that need, the Iowa Department of Natural Resources recently published the Information and Education Guidebook to Iowa Water Quality Projects to serve as a comprehensive information and education reference for water quality project coordinators. Although it was developed for Iowa, the guidebook provides information that can be applied in water quality projects throughout the country.

    Developed through a Section 319 grant, the publication guides readers through all aspects of information and education (I&E) programs, from identifying target audiences to evaluating an I&E project. Specific I&E strategies are described and many examples of I&E efforts from Iowa's water quality projects are included.

    The attractive loose-leaf notebook format, with sections separated by tabs, makes the information presented very accessible and provides the option for the reader to add new information as it is located.

    Copies of the guidebook (cost $25) may be ordered by contacting Karen Meinders, Iowa Department of Natural Resources, 900 East Grand, Des Moines, IA 50319, Tel: 515-281-8395, Fax: 515-281-8895, email:

    National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) Fact Sheets

    In 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) implemented the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program throughout the United States (see NWQEP NOTES issues #76 and #61). Many NAWQA study units have published useful fact sheets. Some of these are listed below (see also NWQEP NOTES #77 and the national NAWQA home page:

    Fact sheets published by the South Platte NAWQA project are listed below. They are available in hard copy (South Platte NAWQA Coordinator, USGS, Water Resources Division, Box 25046, MS415, Lakewood, CO 80225, Tel: 303-236-4882 ext. 312, email: and are also accessible on the South Platte NAWQA home page:

    Nutrients in the South Platte River, 1993-95 (FS-105-95) (2p)

    Review of Sediment Data in the South Platte River Basin, Colorado, 1980-92 (FS-153-95) (2p)

    Are Streams in Agricultural and Urban Areas Contaminated by Pesticides? (FS-104-95) (2p)

    Some Bacteria Are Beneficial! (FS-102-95) (2p)

    Denver's Urban Ground-Water Quality: Nutrients, Pesticides, and Volatile Organic Compounds (FS-106-95) (2p)

    Fish Communities in the Plains Region of the South Platte River, August 1993 and 1994 (FS-154-95) (2p)

    Central Columbia Plateau (CCPT) NAWQA fact sheets are available in hard copy (NAWQA Project Chief, USGS, 1201 Pacific Avenue, Suite 600, Tacoma, WA 98402, Tel: 206-593-6510, email: Items marked with an asterisk are presented on the web:

    *Agricultural Pesticides Found in Ground Water of the Quincy and Pasco Basins (page 1) (page 2)(FS-240-95) (2p)

    *Are Agricultural Pesticides in Surface Waters of the Central Columbia Plateau? (page 1) (page 4) (FS-241-95) (4p)

    *Water Fact Sheet, NAWQA Program Mid-Columbia River Basin, WA and ID (Open-File #91-164) (2p)

    Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in aquatic ecosystems of the Central Columbia Plateau (FS-170-96) (4p) Pesticides Found in Ground Water Below Orchards in the Quincy and Pasco Basins (FS-171-96) (4p)

    Pesticides and Volatile Organic Compounds in Ground and Surface Water of the Palouse Subunit, WA and ID (FS-204-96) (2p)

    *Nitrate Concentrations in Ground Water of the Central Columbia Plateau (Open-File #95-445) (4p)

    Pesticides in Public Supply Wells of the Central Columbia Plateau (FS-205-96) (4p)

    *Pesticides in Public Supply Wells of Washington State (FS-122-96) (2p)


    Meeting Announcements - 1997

    1997 Farmer-Led Watershed Initiatives Conference: Feb 6-7, Mankato, MN. Jim Kleinschmit or Emily Green, Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy, 1313 5th St. SE, Suite 303, Minneapolis, MN 55414, Tel: 612-379-5980, fax: 612-379-5982, email:

    SE Sustainable Animal Waste Management Workshop: Feb 11-12, Tifton, GA. Rural Development Cntr, P.O. Box 1209, Tifton, GA 31793, Tel: 912-386-3416, Fax: 912-386-3822, email:

    3rd Annual Meeting - North Carolina Lake Management Society: Feb 14, Lake Royale, Bunn, NC. Bryn Tracy, NCLMS, P.O. Box 28348, Raleigh, NC 27611-8348, Tel: 919-733-6946 or 919-779-7575, email:

    Healthy Watersheds - Healthy People - EPA Region VII 5th Annual Nonpoint Source Pollution Management Workshop: Feb 24-27, Columbia, MO. Ruth Wallace, Dept of Natural Resources, Div of Environmental Quality, P.O. Box 176, Jefferson City, MO 65102-0176, Tel: 314-751-7428

    28th Annual International Erosion Control Assoc. Conference: Feb 25-28, Nashville, TN. IECA, P.O. box 4904, Steamboat Springs, CO 80477-4904, Tel: 800-455-4322 or 970-879-3010, Fax: 970-879-8563, email:

    2nd Annual Region 6 Nonpoint Source Conference: Mar 3-5, Austin, TX. Suzanne Cardwell, TX Soil and Water Conservation Board, Tel: 817-773-2205

    The Netherlands Farm Tour: Mar 3-9, The Netherlands. Emily K. Green, Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy, 1313 5th St. SE, Suite 303, Tel: 612-379-5980, fax: 612-379-5982, email:

    7th Annual West Coast Conference - Contaminated Soils and Groundwater: Mar 10-13, Mandalay Bay Resort, Oxnard, CA. Jennifer Howland, Association for Environmental Health of Soils, 150 Fearing St., Amherst, MA 01002, Tel: 413-549-5170, Fax: 413-549-0579

    1997 Georgia Water Resources Conference: March 20-22, Athens, GA. Kathryn Hatcher, Institute of Ecology, Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2202, Fax: 706-542-6040, email:

    2nd International Symposium on Environmental Software Systems: Apr 28 - May 2, Whistler, British Columbia, Canada. David Swayne, Dept. Computing and Information Science, Univ of Guelph, Ontario, CAN N1G 2W1, email:

    First American Wetlands Conference - Communities Working for Wetlands: May 7-9, Alexandria, VA. Stacey Satagaj, Terrene Institute, 4 Herbert St., Alexandria, VA 22305, Tel: 703-548-5473, Fax: 703-548-6299, email:

    4th International Conference on Computer Methods and Water Resources: June 16-18, Byblos, Lebanon. Sue Owen, Conference Secretariat, CMWR 97, Wessex Institute of Technology, Ashurst Lodge, Ashurst, Southampton SO40 7AA, Tel: +44 (01703) 293223, Fax: +44 (01703) 292853, email:, web site:

    4th International Conference - WATER POLLUTION 97- Modeling, Measuring, Prediction: June 18-20, Bled, Slovenia. Liz Kerr, Wessex Inst Technol, Ashurst Lodge, Ashurst, Southampton SO4O 7AA, UK, Fax: 44-1703-292-853, email:

    Water Resources, Education, Training, and Practice: AWRA 1997 Annual Symp: June 29-Jul 3, Keystone Resort, CO. AWRA, 950 Herndon Pkwy, Ste 300, Herndon, VA 22070-5528, Tel: 703-904-1225, Fax: 703-904-1228, email: AWRAHQ@AOL.COM

    Coastal Zone '97 - Charting the Future of Coastal Zone Management: Jul 20-26, Boston, MA. Jessica Cogan, Tel: 202-260-7154, Fax: 202-260-9960, email:

    American Soc Agric Eng International Annual Mtg: Aug 10-14, Minneapolis, MN. ASAE Society Services Group, 2950 Niles Road, St. Joseph, MI 49085-9659, Tel: 616-429-0300, Fax: 616-429-3852, email:

    WEFTEC '97 International Conference: Oct 18-22, Chicago, IL. Water Environment Federation, Tel: 800-666-0206

    AWRA 33rd Annual Conference & Symposium: Oct 19-23, Long Beach, CA. AWRA, 950 Herndon Pkwy, Ste. 300, Herndon, VA 22070-5531, Tel: 703-904-1225, Fax: 703-904-1228, email:

    Karst-Water Environ Symposium & Workshop: Oct 30-31, Roanoke, VA. T.M. Younos, VA Water Resources Res Cntr, 10 Sandy Hall, VA Polytechnic & State Univ, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0444, Tel: 540-231-8039, Fax: 540-231-6673, email:

    Internet Resources

    There is a list of water-related calls for papers and meeting announcements on the World Wide Web at: meetings.txt


    NWQEP NOTES is issued bimonthly. Subscriptions are free (contact: Publications Coordinator at the address below or via email: A publications order form listing all publications on nonpoint source pollution distributed by the NCSU Water Quality Group is included in each hardcopy issue of the newsletter.

    I welcome your views, findings, information, and suggestions for articles. Please feel free to contact me.

    Judith A. Gale, Editor
    Editor, NWQEP NOTES
    Water Quality Extension Specialist
    NCSU Water Quality Group
    Campus Box 7637, NCSU
    Raleigh, NC 27695-7637
    Tel: 919-515-8244, Fax: 919-515-7448


    Production of NWQEP NOTES is funded through U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Grant No. X818397. Project Officer: Steven A. Dressing, Nonpoint Source Pollution Control Program, Office of Water, USEPA (4503F), 499 South Capitol St. SE, Washington, DC 20460, Tel: 202-260-7110, Fax: 202-260-1977, email:, Web Site: