PUBLICATIONS AND GRANTS AND CONTRACTS

I.  PUBLICATIONS

A.  Refereed Journal Articles (Bold indicates graduate students for whom I chaired their committee):

  1. Westerman, P. W., K. E. Bowers and K. D. Zering.  2010.   Phosphorus recovery from covered digester effluent with continuous-flow struvite crystallizer.  Applied Engineering in Agriculture 26(1):153-161.

  2. Westerman, P. W., J. Arogo Ogejo, and G. L. Grabow.  2010.  Swine anaerobic lagoon nutrient concentration variation with season, lagoon level, and rainfall.  Applied Engineering in Agriculture 26(1):147-152.

  3. Shah, S. B., B. K. Balla, G. L. Grabow, P. W. Westerman and D. E. Bailey.  2009.  Impact of land application method on ammonia emission from hog lagoon effluent.  Applied Engineering in Agriculture 25(6):963-973.
  4. Blunden, J., V. P. Aneja and P. W. Westerman.  2008.  Measurement and analysis of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions from a mechanically ventilated swine confinement building in North Carolina.  Atmospheric Environment 42:3315-3331.
  5. Shah, S. B., P. W. Westerman, R. D. Munilla, M. E. Adcock, and G. R. Baughman.  2008.  Design and evaluation of a regenerating scrubber for reducing animal house emissions.  Transactions of the ASABE 51(1):243-250.

  6. Griffing, E. M., M. Overcash and P. Westerman.  2007.  A review of gaseous ammonia emissions from slurry pits in pig production systems.  Biosystems Engineering 97(3):295-312.

  7. Saliling, W. J. B., P. W. Westerman and T. M. Losordo.  2007.  Wood chips and wheat straw as alternative biofilter media for denitrification reactors

    treating aquaculture and other wastewaters with high nitrate concentrations.  Aquacultural Engineering 37(3):222-233.

  8. Shah, S. B., G. L. Grabow and P. W. Westerman.  2006.  Ammonia desorption in five types of flexible tubing materials.  Applied Engineering in Agriculture 22(6): 919-223.
  9. Shah, S. B., P. W. Westerman and J. Arogo. 2006.  Measuring ammonia concentrations and emissions from land and liquid surfaces: A review.  J. Air & Waste Manage. Assoc.:56(7):945-960.
  10. Westerman, P. W. and J. Arogo.  2005.  On-farm performance of two solids/liquid separation systems for flushed swine manure.  Applied Engineering in Agriculture 21(4): 707-717.
  11. Bowers, K. E. and P. W. Westerman. 2005. Performance of cone-shaped fluidized bed struvite crystallizers in removing phosphorus from wastewater.  Transactions of the ASAE 48(3):1227-1234.
  12. Bowers, K. E. and P. W. Westerman.  2005.  Design of cone-shaped fluidized bed struvite crystallizers for phosphorus removal from wastewater.  Transactions of the ASAE 48(3):1217-1226.
  13. Westerman, P. W. and J. Arogo.  2005.  Performance of a pond aeration system for treating anaerobic swine lagoon effluent.  Applied Engineering in Agriculture 21(3):505-516.
  14. Westerman, P. W. and J. R. Bicudo.  2005.  Management considerations for organic waste use in agriculture.  Bioresource Technology 96(2):215-221.  Special Issue of the 10th International Conference on Recycling of Agricultural, Municipal and Industrial Residues in Agriculture.  Edited by J. Martinez and M. Pilar Bernal.
  15. Arogo, J., P. W. Westerman and Z. S. Liang.  2003.  Comparing ammonium ion dissociation constant in swine anaerobic lagoon liquid and deionized water.  Transactions of the ASAE 46(5):1415-1419.
  16. Arogo, J., P. W. Westerman and A. Heber.  2003.  A review of ammonia emissions from confined swine feeding operations.  Transactions of the ASAE 46(3):805-817.
  17. Liang, Z. S., P. W. Westerman and J. Arogo. 2002. Modeling ammonia emission from swine anaerobic lagoons.  Transactions of the ASAE 45(3): 787-798.
  18. Westerman, P. W. and J. R. Bicudo.  2002.  Application of mixed and aerated pond for nitrification and denitrification of flushed swine manure.  Applied Engineering in Agriculture 18(3):351-358.
  19. De Visscher, A., L. A. Harper, P. W. Westerman, Z. Liang, J. Arogo, R. R. Sharpe and O. Van Cleemput.  2002. Ammonia emissions from anaerobic swine lagoons: Model development.  Journal of Applied Meteorology 41:426-433.
  20. Hill, V. R., A. Kantardjieff, M. D. Sobsey and P. W. Westerman. 2002. Reduction of enteric microbes in flushed swine wastewater treated by a biological aerated filter and UV radiation.  Water Environ. Res. 74(1):91-99.
  21. Classen, J. J., J. S. Young, R. W. Bottcher and P. W. Westerman. 2000. Design and analysis of a pilot-scale biofiltration system for odorous air.  Transactions of the ASAE 43(1):111-118.
  22. Westerman, P. W., J. R. Bicudo and A. Kantardjieff. 2000. Upflow biological aerated filters for the treatment of flushed swine manure. Bioresource Technology 74(3):181-190.
  23. Westerman, P. W. and J. R. Bicudo. 2000. Tangential flow separation and chemical enhancement to recover swine manure solids, nutrients and metals. Bioresource Technology 73(1):1-11.
  24. Bicudo, J. R., L. M. Safley, Jr. and P. W. Westerman.  1999.  Nutrient content and sludge volumes in single-cell recycle anaerobic swine lagoons in North Carolina.  Transactions of the ASAE 42(4):1087-1093.
  25. Zhang, R. H. and P. W. Westerman.  1997.  Solid-liquid separation of animal manure for odor control and nutrient management.  Applied Engineering in Agriculture 13(3):385-393.
  26. Westerman, P. W. and R. H. Zhang.  1997.  Aeration of livestock manure slurry and lagoon liquid for odor control: A review.  Applied Engineering in Agriculture 13(2):245-249.
  27. Twarowska, J. G., P. W. Westerman and T. M. Losordo.  1997.  Water treatment and waste characterization evaluation of an intensive recirculating fish production system.  Aquacultural Engineering 16:133-147.
  28. Westerman, P. W., T. M. Losordo and M. L. Wildhaber.  1996.  Evaluation of various biofilters in an intensive recirculating fish production facility.  Transactions of the ASAE 39(2):723-727.
  29. Hargrove, L. L., P. W. Westerman and T. M. Losordo.  1996.  Nitrification in three-stage and single-stage floating bead biofilters in a lab-scale recirculating aquaculture system.  Aquacultural Engineering 15(1):67-80.
  30. Westerman, P. W., R. L. Huffman and J. S. Feng.  1995.  Swine-lagoon seepage in sandy soil.  Transactions of the ASAE 38(6):1749-1760.
  31. Huffman, R. L. and P. W. Westerman.  1995.  Estimated seepage losses from established swine waste lagoons in the lower coastal plain of North Carolina.  Transactions of the ASAE 38(2):449-453.
  32. Losordo, T. M., P. W. Westerman and S. K. Liehr.  1994.  Water treatment and wastewater generation in intensive recirculating fish production systems.  Bull. Natl. Inst. Aquaculture, Suppl. 1:27-36.
  33. Losordo, T. M. and P. W. Westerman.  1994.  An analysis of the biological, economic and engineering factors affecting the cost of fish production in recirculating aquaculture systems.  Jour. or World Aquaculture Society 25(2):193-203.
  34. Safley, L. M., Jr. and P. W. Westerman.  1994.  Low-temperature digestion of dairy and swine manure.  Bioresource Technology 47(2):165-171.
  35. Safley, L. M., Jr. and P. W. Westerman.  1992.  Performance of a dairy manure anaerobic lagoon.  Bioresource Technology 41:43-52.
  36. Safley, L. M., Jr. and P. W. Westerman.  1992.  Performance of a low temperature lagoon digester.  Bioresource Technology 41:167-175.
  37. Safley, L. M., Jr., P. W. Westerman, M. M. Kim and D. S. Carr.  1992.  Corrosion of galvanized steel in animal waste environments.  Bioresource Technology 40:53-61.
  38. Safley, L. M., Jr., J. C. Barker and P. W. Westerman.  1992.  Loss of nitrogen during sprinkler irrigation of swine lagoon liquid.  Bioresource Technology 40:7-15.
  39. King, L. D., J. C. Burns and P. W. Westerman.  1990.  Long-term swine lagoon effluent applications on Coastal bermudagrass.  II. Effect on nutrient accumulation in soil.  J. Envir. Qual. 19:756-760.
  40. Burns, J. C., L. D. King and P. W. Westerman.  1990.    Long-term swine lagoon effluent applications on Coastal bermudagrass. I. Yield, quality, and element removal.  J. Envir. Qual. 19:749-756.
  41. Safley, L. M., Jr. and P. W. Westerman. 1990.  Psychrophilic anaerobic digestion of animal manure:  Proposed Design Methodology. Biological Waste 34:133-148.
  42. Westerman, P. W., W. L. Hankins and L. M. Safley, Jr. 1990.  Nitrogen availability from poultry processing plant DAF sludge.  Transactions of the ASAE 32(4):1287-1294.
  43. Safley, L. M., Jr., P. W. Westerman and L. D. King.  1989.  Effects of dairy manure application rate and timing, and injector spacing and type on corn silage production.  Biological Wastes  18:203-216.
  44. Safley, L. M., Jr. and P. W. Westerman. 1989.  Anaerobic lagoon biogas recovery systems.   Biological Wastes 27:43-62.
  45. Westerman, P. W., L. M. Safley, Jr. and J. C. Barker.  1988.  Available nitrogen in broiler and turkey litter.  Transactions of the ASAE  31(4):1070-1075.
  46. Safley, L. M., Jr. and P. W. Westerman.  1988. Biogas production from anaerobic lagoons.  Biological Wastes  23(3):181-193.
  47. Westerman, P. W., L. D. King, J. C. Burns, G. A. Cummings and M. R. Overcash.  1987.  Swine manure and lagoon effluent applied to a temperate forage mixture: II.  Rainfall runoff and soil chemical properties.  J. Environ. Qual. 16(2):106-112.
  48. Burns, J. C., P. W. Westerman, L. D. King, M. R. Overcash and G. A. Cummings.  1987.  Swine manure and lagoon effluent applied to a temperate forage mixture: I. Persistence, yield, quality, and elemental removal.  J. Environ. Qual. 16(2):99-105.
  49. Dressing, S. A., J. Spooner, J. M. Kreglow, E. O. Beasley and P. W. Westerman.  1987.  Water and sediment sampler for plot and field studies.  J. Environ. Qual. 16(1):59-64.
  50. Chescheir, G. M., III, P. W. Westerman and L. M. Safley, Jr.  1986.  Laboratory methods for estimating available nitrogen in manures and sludges.  Agricultural Wastes 18:175-195.
  51. Safley, L. M., Jr., P. W. Westerman, J. C. Barker, L. D. King and D. T. Bowman.  1986.  Slurry dairy manure as a corn nutrient source.  Agricultural Wastes  18:123-136.
  52. Safley, L. M., Jr., P. W. Westerman and J. C. Barker.  1986.  Fresh dairy manure characteristics and barnlot nutrient losses.  Agricultural Wastes 17(3):203-215.
  53. Chescheir, G. M., III, P. W. Westerman and L. M. Safley, Jr.  1985.  Rapid methods for determining nutrients in livestock manures.  Transactions of the ASAE 28(6):1817-1824.
  54. Westerman, P. W., M. R. Overcash, R. O. Evans, L. D. King, J. C. Burns and G. A. Cummings.  1985.  Swine lagoon effluent applied to 'Coastal' bermudagrass: III.  Irrigation and rainfall runoff.  J. Environ. Qual. 14:22-25.
  55. King, L. D., P. W. Westerman, G. A. Cummings, M. R. Overcash and J. C. Burns.  1985.  Swine lagoon effluent applied to 'Coastal' bermudagrass: II. Effects on soil. J. Environ. Qual. 14:14-21.
  56. Burns, J. C., P. W. Westerman, L. D. King, G. A. Cummings, M. R. Overcash and L. Goode.  1985.  Swine lagoon effluent applied to 'Coastal' bermudagrass: I. Forage yield, quality and element removal.  J. Environ. Qual. 14:9-14.
  57. Safley, L. M., Jr., J. C. Barker and P. W. Westerman.  1984.  Characteristics of fresh dairy manure.  Transactions of the ASAE 27(4):1150-1153, 1162.
  58. Safley, L. M., Jr., J. C. Barker and P. W. Westerman.  1984.  Modification of a slurry manure injector for plot research.  Transactions of the ASAE 27(2):348-352.
  59. Evans, R. O., P. W. Westerman and M. R. Overcash.  1984.  Subsurface drainage water quality from land application of swine lagoon effluent.  Transactions of the ASAE 27(2):473- 480.
  60. Safley, L. M., Jr., D. W. Nelson and P. W. Westerman.  1983. Conserving manurial nitrogen.  Transactions of the ASAE 26(4): 1166-1170.
  61. Westerman, P. W., T. L. Donnelly, and M. R. Overcash.  1983. Erosion of soil and poultry manure-A laboratory study.  Transactions of the ASAE 26(4):1070-1078, 1084.
  62. Overcash, M. R., S. C. Bingham and P. W. Westerman.  1981.   Predicting runoff pollutant reductions in buffer zones adjacent to land treatment sites.  Transactions of the ASAE 24(2):430-435.
  63. Crane, S.R., P.W. Westerman and M.R. Overcash.  1981.  Short-term chemical transformations following land application of  poultry manure.  Transactions of the ASAE 24(2):382-390.
  64. Reddy, K. R., M. R. Overcash, R. Khaleel and P. W. Westerman. 1980.  Phosphorus adsorption-desorption characteristics of two   soils utilized for disposal of animal wastes.  Journal of Environmental Quality 9(1):86-92.
  65. Bingham, S. C., P. W. Westerman and M. R. Overcash.  1980.  Effect of grass buffer zone length in reducing the pollution  from land application areas.  Transactions of the ASAE 23(2):330-335, 342.
  66. Crane, S. R., P. W. Westerman and M. R. Overcash.  1980.  Die-off of fecal indicator organisms following land application of  poultry manure.  Journal of Environmental Quality 9(3):531-537.
  67. Westerman, P. W. and M. R. Overcash.  1980.  Dairy open lot and lagoon-irrigated pasture runoff quantity and quality.  Transactions of the ASAE 23(5):1157-1164, 1170.
  68. Khaleel, R., G. R. Foster, K. R. Reddy, M. R. Overcash and P. W. Westerman.  1979.  A nonpoint source model for land areas  receiving animal wastes.  IV.  Model inputs and verification for sediment and manure transport.  Transactions of the ASAE 22(6):1362-1368.
  69. Khaleel, R., G. R. Foster, K. R. Reddy, M. R. Overcash and P. W.  Westerman.  1979.  A nonpoint source model for land areas receiving animal wastes.  III. A conceptual model for sediment and manure transport.  Transactions of the ASAE 22(6):1353-1361.
  70. Reddy, K. R., R. Khaleel, M. R. Overcash and P. W. Westerman.  1979.  A non-point source model for land areas receiving animal wastes.  II. Ammonia volatilization.  Transactions of the ASAE 22(6):1398-1405.
  71. Reddy, K. R., R. Khaleel, M. R. Overcash and P. W. Westerman.  1979.  A non-point source model for land areas receiving animal  wastes: I. Mineralization of organic nitrogen.  Transactions of the ASAE 22(4):863-872.
  72. Khaleel, R., K. R. Reddy, M. R. Overcash and P. W. Westerman.  1978.  Comments on 'Distributed numerical model for estimating runoff and sediment discharge in ungaged rivers.  2.  Model development' by S. I. Solomon and S. K. Gupta.  Water Resources Research 14(5):981-982.
  73. Overcash, M. R., J. W. Gilliam, F. J. Humenik and P. W. Westerman.  1978.  Lagoon pretreatment: selected heavy metal and cation removals.  J.W.P.C.F.  50(8):2029-2036.
  74. Overcash, M. R., D. M. Covil, J. Wendell Gilliam, P. W. Westerman and F. J. Humenik.  1978.  Overland flow pretreatment of poultry manure.  Journal of the Environmental Engineering Division, ASCE 104 (EE2) Proc. Paper 13675-339:350.
  75. Westerman, P. W., B. J. Barfield, O. J. Loewer and J. N. Walker.  1976.  Evaporative cooling of a partially-wet and transpiring leaf II.  Simulated effect of variations in environmental conditions, leaf properties, and surface water characteristics.  Transactions of the ASAE 19(5):889-893, 896.
  76. Westerman, P. W., B. J. Barfield, O. J. Loewer and J. N. Walker.  1976.  Evaporative cooling of a partially-wet and transpiring leaf I.  Computer model and its evaluation using wind-tunnel experiments.  Transactions of the ASAE 19(5):881-888.
  77. Westerman, P. W., G. M. White and I. J. Ross.  1973.  Relative humidity effect on the high-temperature drying of shelled corn.  Transactions of the ASAE 16(6):1136-1139.
  78. White, G. M., I. J. Ross and P. W. Westerman.  1973.  Drying rate and quality of white shelled corn as influenced by dew point temperature.  Transactions of the ASAE 16(1):118-120.

B.  Miscellaneous Publications

  1. Westerman, P. W. 2003.  Manure Issues in the USA.  In: RAMIRAN Newsletter, No. 2, June 2003.  Research Network on Recycling of Agricultural, Municipal and Industrial Residues in Agriculture. Newsletter Editor: Dr. Brian Pain, Devon, UK.  Network Coordinator: Dr. Jose Martinez, Cemagref, Rennes, France.
  2. Arogo, J., P. W. Westerman, A. J. Heber, W. P. Robarge and J. J. Classen.  2001.  Ammonia emissions from animal feeding operations.  White paper sponsored by the National Center for Manure and Animal Waste Management, Published by MWPS (also available on CD), Ames, IA. 63 pg.
  3. Sweeten, J. M., L. Jacobson, A. J. Heber, D. Schmidt, J. Lorimor, P. Westerman, J. R. Miner, R. Zhang, M. Williams and B. W. Auverman.  2001. Odor mitigation for concentrated animal feeding operations. White paper sponsored by the National Center for Manure and Animal Waste Management, Published by MWPS (also available on CD), Ames, IA. 50 pg.
  4. Westerman, P. W.  1984.  Crop residues: energy production or soil erosion control.  Agricultural Engineering 65(2):21.
  5. Westerman, P. W.  1979.  Book review of:  Food, Fertilizer and Agricultural Residues:  Proceedings of the 1977 Cornell Agricultural Waste Management Conference.  R. C. Loehr (Editor).  Review published in Agriculture and Environment 4(1978/1979): 312-314.  Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co., Amsterdam.


C.  Book Chapters

  1. Arogo, J., P. W. Westerman,  A. J. Heber, W. P. Robarge, and John J. Classen. 2006. Ammonia emissions from animal feeding operations. In: Animal Agriculture and the Environment: National Center for Manure and Animal Waste Management White Papers, p. 41-88. Edited by J. M. Rice, D. F. Caldwell, and F. J. Humenik. ASABE, St. Joseph, MI. 776 pages
  2. Sweeten, J. M., L. D. Jacobson, A. J. Heber, D. R. Schmidt, J. C. Lorimor, P. W. Westerman, J. R. Miner, R. H. Zhang, C. M. Williams, and B. W. Auvermann. 2006. Odor mitigation for concentrated animal feeding operations: white paper and recommendation.  In: Animal Agriculture and the Environment: National Center for Manure and Animal Waste Management White Papers, p. 721-758. Edited by J. M. Rice, D. F. Caldwell, and F. J. Humenik. ASABE, St. Joseph, MI. 776 pages
  3. Westerman, P. W.  1984.  Crop residues:  energy production or soil erosion control.  In:  Agriculture and the Environment: An  Examination of Critical Issues  for Food Policy (117 p.), Chap. 5, p. 45-50.  ASAE, St. Joseph, MI.


D.  Technical Reports

  1. Westerman, P. W.  April 30, 2009. Phosphorus Recovery from Concentrated Wastewater with a Continuous-Flow Struvite Crystallizer.  NPB Project #07-032.  35 pg.

  2. Westerman, P. W.  2007.  Manure and nutrient characterization for flushed manure for use in design criteria for innovative treatment technologies.  Final Report for NCPC Project #06M59MF1.  NC State University, Raleigh, NC.  11 pg.
  3. The N.C. PLAT Committee.  2005.  North Carolina Phosphorus Loss Assessment: I. Model Description and II. Scientific Basis and Supporting Literature.  North Carolina Agricultural Research Service Technical Bulletin 323, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC. 90 pg.
  4. Westerman, P. W. and J. Arogo.  2004.  Environmental Renewal Technologies Project Evaluation.  29 pg.  A&PWMC, NC State University, Raleigh, NC.
  5. Westerman, P. W. and J. Arogo.  2004  Biomass Energy Sustainable Technology Performance Verification. May 2003, 89 pg. In: Development of Environmentally Superior Technologies: Phase I Report for Technology Determinations per Agreements Between the Attorney General of North Carolina and Smithfield Foods, Premium Standard Farms and Frontline Farmers.  Appendix A.2.  A&PWMC, NC State University, Raleigh, NC.
  6. Westerman, P. W. and J. Arogo.  2004.  Ekokan Biofiltration Technology Performance Verification.  May 2003, 89 pg. In: Development of Environmentally Superior Technologies: Phase I Report for Technology Determinations per Agreements Between the Attorney General of North Carolina and Smithfield Foods, Premium Standard Farms and Frontline Farmers.  Appendix A.6.  A&PWMC, NC State University, Raleigh, NC.
  7. FASS/ASAE Committee proposed revisions to ASAE D 384.1Standard on Animal Manure Production and Characteristics. Editors:  Rick Koelsch (U. Nebraska) and Wendy Powers (Iowa St. Univ.). Dec. 2003.
  8. N. C. State University College of Agriculture and Life Sciences.  2003.  North Carolina Phosphorus Loss Assessment: I. Scientific Basis and Supporting Literature (51 pg.) and II. Model Description (25 pg.).  Editor: John Havlin, Soil Science Dept.  Interagency Committee Report, Nov. 2003.
  9. N. C. Dept. of Environment and Natural Resources.  2000.  Framework for the Conversion of Anaerobic Lagoons and Sprayfields.  Technology Panel Final Report (11 members, Dennis Ramsey, Chair).  Dec. 2000. 70 p. plus 3-page executive summary.
  10. N. C. State University College of Agriculture and Life Sciences.  2000.  Considerations for Waste Treatment Technology Conversion by the North Carolina Swine Industry.  Prepared by CALS faculty (7 members).  Sept. 2000.  Www.cals.ncsu.edu/waste_mgt
  11. N. C. State University College of Agriculture and Life Sciences.  2000.  Livestock and Poultry Farms Located in North Carolina Floodplains, a report by faculty of the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences (27 members, Ken Esbenshade, Chair).  Sept. 2000, 35 p.
  12. N. C. Agricultural Research Service.  1998.  Control of Odor Emissions from Animal Operations, a  report from the Board of Governors of the University of North Carolina.  Prepared by NC ARS Committee (10 members), Mike Williams, Chair.  Sept. 1, 1998. www.cals.ncsu.edu/waste_mgt
  13. N. C. Agricultural Research Service. 1995. Options for Managing Odor, a report from the Swine Odor Task Force.  Johnny Wynne, Chair, 28 members.  March 1, 1995. 78 p.
  14. Westerman, P. W.  1995.  Corrosion of galvanized steel in animal wastes.  Final Report to International Lead Zinc Research Organization, Inc. for ILZRO Project No. ZE-327. 61 p.
  15. Losordo, T. M., J. M. Hinshaw, P. W. Westerman, J. E. Easley, T. C. Wenzel and D. P. DeLong.  1991.  Recirculating warm-water aquaculture system demonstration project.  Final report to The Energy Division, N. C. Dept. of Economics and Community Development.  Dec. 1991. 104 p.
  16. Safley, L. M., Jr., J. C. Barker, T. A. Carter, C. D. Safley, S. L. Warren, P. W. Westerman and J. P. Zublena.  1990.  Composting poultry litter--Economics and marketing potential of a renewable resource.  A report submitted to the Univ. of Georgia as fulfillment of subcontract No. 8556122, 89-9P-1.  Biol. and Agr. Engr. Dept., NCSU, Raleigh, NC. 217p.
  17. Lanier, A. L., M. D. Smolen and P. W. Westerman.  1988.  Data base management system on the performance and selection of agricultural nonpoint source control practices.  Final Report for Phase I of BMP Project Cooperative Agreement No. 87-EXCA-3-0831.  USDA-ES.
  18. King, L. D. and P. W. Westerman.  1983.  General guidelines for land treatment of sludge.  Report No. 3, Land Treatment Series.  Water Resources Research Institute of the University of North Carolina, N. C. State University, Raleigh, NC. 37 p.
  19. Westerman, P. W. and L. D. King.  1983.  General guidelines for land treatment of wastewater.  Report No. 2, Land Treatment Series.  Water Resources Research Institute of the University of North Carolina, N.C. State University, Raleigh, NC. 51 p.
  20. Westerman, P. W., L. D. King, J. C. Burns and M. R. Overcash.  1983.  Swine manure and lagoon effluent applied to fescue.  EPA-600/2-83-078.  U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Laboratory, Ada, OK. 139 p.  (Project Summary EPA-600/S2-83-078, Nov. 1983. 5 p.)
  21. Westerman, P. W., M. R. Overcash and S. C. Bingham.  1983.  Reducing runoff pollution using vegetated borderland for manure application sites.  EPA-600/2-83-022. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.  Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Laboratory, Ada, OK. 84 p.  (Project Summary EPA-600/52-83-022, June 1983. 3 p.)
  22. Westerman, P. W., J. C. Burns, L. D. King, M. R. Overcash and R. O. Evans.  1983.  Swine lagoon effluent applied to coastal bermudagrass.  EPA-600/2-83-004.  U. S. Environmental Protection Agency.  Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Laboratory, Ada, OK. 213 p.  (Project Summary EPA-600/S2-83-004, Apr. 1983. 5 p.)
  23. Drynam, R. G., J. C. Williamson, P. W. Westerman and S. R. Crane.  1981.  Economic technical evaluations of swine manure management systems which use land application.  Report No. 173, Water  Resources Research Institute of the University of North Carolina, N. C. State University, Raleigh, NC. 159 p.
  24. Research Needs Assessment Task Groups.  1979.  Research needs assessment - Livestock manure management in the United States.  R. K. White (editor).  EPA-600/2-79-179.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.  Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Laboratory.  Ada, OK (Contributed to one chapter as member of a Task Group).
  25. Overcash, M. R., D. M. Covil, J. W. Gilliam, P. W. Westerman and F. J. Humenik.  1976.  Overland flow pretreatment of wastewater.  Report No. 117, Water Resources Research Institute of the University of North Carolina, N. C. State University, Raleigh, NC. 140 p.

E.   Extension Publications

  1. Westerman, P., K. Zering, and D. Rashash.  2009.  Struvite crystallizer for recovering phosphorus from lagoon and digester liquid.  AG-724W.  NC Cooperative Extension Service.  NC State University, Raleigh, NC. http://www.bae.ncsu.edu/programs/extension/manure/lagoon/ag-724w_struvite_crystallizer.pdf

  2. Westerman, P., M. Veal, J. Cheng, and K. Zering.  2008.  Biogas anaerobic digester considerations for swine farms in North Carolina.  AG-707.  NC Cooperative Extension Service. NC State University, Raleigh, NC. http://www.bae.ncsu.edu/programs/extension/manure/energy/digester.pdf
  3. Westerman, P., M. Veal, J. Cheng, and K. Zering.  2008.  Carbon credits for methane collection and combustion.  AG-708.  NC Cooperative Extension Service. NC State University, Raleigh, NC.  http://www.bae.ncsu.edu/programs/extension/manure/energy/carboncredits.pdf
  4. Westerman, P. W., K. A. Shaffer and J. M. Rice.  2008.  Sludge survey methods for anaerobic lagoons (revision).  AGW-639 (Revised August 2008).  NC Cooperative Extension Service. NC State University, Raleigh, NC. http://www.bae.ncsu.edu/programs/extension/manure/sludge-survey/sludge_survey.pdf
  5. Shah, S, P. Westerman and G. Grabow. 2007.  Additives for improving hog farm air quality.  AG-686W. http://www.bae.ncsu.edu/programs/extension/publicat/wqwm/AG-686w.pdf    http://www.bae.ncsu.edu/programs/extension/publicat/wqwm/AG-686w-s.pdf
  6. Shah, Sanjay, Philip Westerman, and James Parsons.  2006. Poultry litter amendments.  AGW-657. http://www.bae.ncsu.edu/programs/extension/publicat/wqwm/poultry/factsheet_agw-657short.pdf http://www.bae.ncsu.edu/programs/extension/publicat/wqwm/poultry/factsheet_agw-657long.pdf
  7. Westerman, P. W., K. A. Shaffer and J. M. Rice.  2003.  Sludge survey methods for anaerobic lagoons.  AGW-639. NC Cooperative Extension Service. NC State University, Raleigh, NC.

             

F.  Proceedings of Conferences and Symposia other than ASAE Annual Meetings (Bold indicates presenter other than 1st author)

  1. Shah, S. B., P. W. Westerman, R. D. Munilla, M. E. Adcock, and G. R. Baughman.  2007.  Performance evaluation of a regenerating scrubber for animal house emissions.  In: CD-ROM Proceedings of the International Symposium on Air Quality and Waste Management in Agriculture.  Broomfield, CO, Sept. 16-19.  ASABE Publication Number 701PO907cd. ASABE, St. Joseph, MI.  9 pg.
  2. Westerman, P., M. Williams, and K. Zering. 2006.  Overview of evaluations of alternative swine manure treatment systems in North Carolina, USA.  In: (Ed. Soren Petersen) Proceedings of the 12th RAMIRAN International Conference, Technology for Recycling of Manure and Organic Residues in a Whole-Farm Perspective, Vol. II, p. 13-15, Aarhus, Denmark, Sept. 11-13.
  3. Blunden, J., V. P. Aneja and P. W. Westerman.  2006.  Measurement and analysis of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions from an anaerobic swine waste treatment lagoon and confinement building in North Carolina.  In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Agricultural Air Quality: State of the Science, p. 71-79.  June 5-8, 2006, Potomac, MD.
  4. Westerman, P. W.  2005.  Agricultural organic waste management for environmental sustainability.  In Proceedings of International Symposium on Biogas Production, Wastewater Treatment and Management Strategies of Organic Residues, p. 63-79.  Suwon, Republic of Korea, 5 September 2005.  National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, UNDP-RDA Cooperative Project, Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea.
  5. Westerman, P. W. and J. Arogo.  2003.  Ekokan upflow biofiltration treatment system.  In: Proceedings of the North Carolina Animal Waste Management Workshop, p. 26-29, October 16-17, Research Triangle Park, NC.  N. C. St. University, Raleigh, NC.

  6. Westerman, P. W. and J. Arogo.  2003.  Performance of the IESS biokinetic air waste treatment system on a swine farm.  In: Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Animal, Agricultural and Food Processing Wastes, p. 153-163, October 12-15,  Research Triangle Park, NC.  ASAE, St. Joseph, MI.
  7. Carter, S. D., G. L. Cromwell, P. W. Westerman, J. S. Park and L. A. Pettey.  2003.  Prediction of nitrogen, phosphorus, and dry matter excretion by swine based on diet chemical composition, feed intake, and nutrient retention.  In: Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Animal, Agricultural and Food Processing Wastes, p. 285-295, October 12-15,  Research Triangle Park, NC.  ASAE, St. Joseph, MI.
  8. Aneja, V.P., D.S. Kim, S.P. Arya, W. Robarge, P. Westerman, M. Williams, D. Dickey, H. Arkinson, H. Semunegus, J. Blunden, M. Sobsey, L. Todd, G. Ko, W. Verkruysse, K. Mottus, C. Likirdopulos, O. Simmons, S. Schiffman, and B. Graham. 2003. Intergraded study of the emissions of ammonia, odor and odorants, and pathogens and related contaminants from potential environmentally superior technologies for swine facilities: Program OPEN (Odor, Pathogens, and Emissions of Nitrogen). In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Gaseous and Odous Emissions from Animal Production Facilities”, June 1-4, Horsens, Jutland, Denmark, ISBN 87-88976-66-1, pp. 478-484. 
  9. Arogo, J., P. W. Westerman, A. J. Heber, W. P. Robarge and J. J. Classen.  2003.  Ammonia emissions from animal feeding operations.  In: Proceedings of AWRA 2003 Spring Specialty Conference Agricultural Hydrology and Water Quality.  May 12-14, 2003Kansas City, MO.  AWRA, Middleburg, VA.
  10. Sweeten, J., L. Jacobson, A. Heber, D. Schmidt, J. Lorimor, P. Westerman, J. R. Miner, R. Zhang, C.M. Williams and B. W. Auverman.  2003.  Odor mitigation for concentrated animal feeding operations: White paper and recommendations. In: Proceedings of AWRA 2003 Spring Specialty Conference Agricultural Hydrology and Water Quality.  May 12-14, 2003Kansas City, MO.  AWRA, Middleburg, VA.
  11. Westerman, P. W. and J. R. Bicudo.  2002.  Management strategies for organic waste use in agriculture.  Proceedings of RAMIRAN 2002 10th International Conference Hygiene Safety, p. 85-91.  Invited presentation for the 10th International Conference of the European Research Network on Recycling of Agricultural, Municipal and Industrial Residues in Agriculture "RAMIRAN 2002", May 14-18, Strbske Pleso,Slovak Republic
  12. Westerman, P. W. and J. Arogo.  2001.  Evaluation of IESS biokinetic air waste treatment system.  In: Proceedings of International Symposium Addressing Animal Production and Environmental Issues, Oct. 3-5, Research Triangle Park, NC. p. 817-820 (poster).
  13. Havlin, J. S. Hodges, D. Osmond, A. Johnson, W. Skaggs, R. Evans, J. Parsons, P. Westerman, L. Price and R. Reich.  2001.  Assessing the risk of phosphorus delivery to North Carolina waters.  In: Proceedings of International Symposium Addressing Animal Production and Environmental Issues, Oct. 3-5, Research Triangle Park, NC. p. 227-238.
  14. Arogo, J., P. W. Westerman, A. J. Heber, W. P. Robarge and J. J. Classen.  2001.  Ammonia produced by animal operations.  In: Proceedings of International Symposium Addressing Animal Production and Environmental Issues, Oct. 3-5, Research Triangle Park, NC. p. 278-293.
  15. Bicudo, J. R., P. W. Westerman and J. A. Oleszkiewicz.  2000.  Anaerobic and aerobic treatment of animal manure - A review.  In: Proceedings of Animal Residuals Management Conference - Issues and Solutions.  Nov. 12-14, Kansas City, MO.  Water Environment Federation, Alexandria, VA.
  16. Arogo, J. and P. W. Westerman.  2000.  Conceptual model for ammonia and odor production and ammonia emission from swine anaerobic lagoons.  In: Proceedings of 2nd International Conference on Air Pollution from Agricultural Operations.  Des Moines, IA, Oct. 9-11.  ASAE Publication 701P0003, ASAE, St. Joseph, MI.  p. 132-140.
  17. Westerman, P. W., Z. S. Liang and J. Arogo. 1999. Modeling ammonia emission from swine anaerobic lagoons.  In: Proceedings of Workshop on Atmospheric Nitrogen Compounds II: Emission, Transport, Transformation, Deposition and Assessment. p. 372-382. June 7-9, 1999, Chapel Hill, NC.
  18. Hill, V. R., A. Kantardjieff, M. D. Sobsey, P. W. Westerman and J. Braxton.  1999.  Reduction of enteric microbes and nutrients in flushed swine wastewater treated by a biological aerated filter and UV irradiation.  Proceedings (CD ROM) of WEFTEC '99, the 7th Annual Water Environment Federation (WEF) Conference and Exposition, Oct. 9-13, New Orleans.
  19. Kantardjieff, A., P. Westerman and J. Bicudo.  1999.  Innovative approach for flushed swine manure treatment: The aerobic upflow biofilter.  In: Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation/Purdue Industrial Wastes Technical Conference, June 27-30.  Indianapolis, IN. 18 p.
  20. Kantardjieff, A., J. P. Jones, P. Westerman and J. Bicudo.  1999.  Demonstration of a novel aerobic biofilter process for the treatment of concentrated effluents.  In: F. Rogalla (Ed.) Proceedings of IAWQ/IWA Conference on Biofilm Systems.  New York, Oct. 17-21. 4 p.
  21. Hill, V. R., A. Kantardjieff, M. D. Sobsey, P. W. Westerman and J. Braxton.  1999.  Reduction of enteric indicator microbes and nutrients in swine wastewater using an aerobic upflow biofilter system and tertiary UV disinfection.  In: Proceedings 1999 NC State University Animal Waste Management Symposium, p. 292-296.  G. B. Havenstein, Ed.
  22. Westerman, P. W. and J. R. Bicudo.  1999.  Tangential flow separation and chemical enhancement to recover swine manure solids and phosphorus from flushed swine manure or lagoon liquid. In: Proceedings 1999 NC State University Animal Waste Management Symposium, p. 47-54.  G. B. Havenstein, Ed.
  23. Westerman, P. W. and J. R.  Bicudo.  1999.  Aeration and mixing pond for nitrification/denitrification of flushed swine manure.  In: Proceedings 1999 NC State University Animal Waste Management Symposium, p. 39-46.  G. B. Havenstein, Ed.
  24. Westerman, P. W., J. R. Bicudo and A. Kantardjieff. 1999.  Aerobic fixed-media upflow biofilter treatment of flushed swine manure.  In: Proceedings 1999 NC State University Animal Waste Management Symposium, p. 31-38.  G. B. Havenstein, Ed.
  25. Young, J. S., J. J. Classen, R. W. Bottcher, and P. W. Westerman.  1997.  Biofiltration system for testing the reduction of odor from swine buildings.  In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Ammonia and Odour Control from Animal Production Facilities, Oct. 6-10, Vinkeloord, The Netherlands, p521-528. NVTL: Rosmalen, The Netherlands.
  26.  Twarowska, J. G., P. W. Westerman and T. M. Losordo.  1996.  Water treatment and waste characterization evaluation of an intensive recirculating fish production system.  In: Proceedings of Conference Successes and Failures in Commercial Recirculating Aquaculture, July 19-21, Roanoke, VA., p. 447-458.  NCRAES-98, Vol. 2, Ithaca, NY.
  27. Westerman, P. W., R. L. Huffman and J. C. Barker.  1996.  Ground water impact of irrigation of swine lagoon effluent on sandy soil with high water table.  In: Proceedings of Solutions: A Technical Conference on Water Quality, March 19-21, Raleigh, NC, p. 87-91.  North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC.
  28. Huffman, R. L. and P. W. Westerman.  1995.  Electromagnetic terrain conductivity survey methods for detection of seepage plumes from animal waste lagoons.  In: Proceedings of SAGEEP '95, April 23-25, Orlando, FL, p. 797-801.  Environmental and Engineering Geophysical Society, Engelwood, CO.
  29. Zhang, R. and P. W. Westerman.  1995.  Solid-liquid separation for animal waste.  In: Proceedings '95, New Knowledge in Livestock Odor, pp. 228-233.  Proceedings of International Livestock Odor Conference '95, Oct. 16-18, 1995.  Iowa State University, Ames, IA.
  30. Westerman, P. W. and R. Zhang.  1995.  Aerobic treatment of animal waste for odor control.  In: Proceedings '95, New Knowledge in Livestock Odor, pp. 218-222.  Proceedings of International Livestock Odor Conference '95, Oct. 16-18, 1995.  Iowa State University, Ames, IA.
  31. Davidson, K. D., P. W. Westerman, L. M. Safley, Jr. and J. C. Barker.  1995.  Relative odor levels from swine production facilities and lagoons.  In: Proceedings of The Seventh International Symposium on Agricultural and Food Processing Wastes (ISAFPW95), Chicago, IL, June 18-20, 1995. p. 616-626.  ASAE Publ. 7-95, ASAE, St. Joseph, MI.
  32. Westerman, P. W., R. L. Huffman and J. C. Barker.  1995.  Environmental and agronomic evaluation of applying swine lagoon effluent to coastal bermudagrass for intensive grazing and hay.  In: Proceedings of The Seventh International Symposium on Agricultural and Food Processing Wastes (ISAFPW95), Chicago, IL, June 18-20, 1995. p. 150-161.  ASAE Publ. 7-95, ASAE, St. Joseph, MI.
  33. Westerman, P. W., T. M. Losordo and M. L. Wildhaber.  1993.  Evaluation of various biofilters in an intensive recirculating fish production facility.  In:  Techniques for Modern Aquaculture.  Proceedings of ASAE Aquacultural Engineering Conference, Spokane, WA, June 21-23, 1993. p. 326-334.  ASAE Publ. 02-93, ASAE, St. Joseph, MI.
  34. Westerman, P. W., J. M. Hinshaw and J. C. Barker.  1993.  Trout manure characterization and nitrogen mineralization rate.  In: Techniques for Modern Aquaculture.  Proceedings of ASAE Aquacultural Engineering Conference, Spokane, WA, June 21-23, 1993. p. 35-43.  ASAE Publ. 02-93, ASAE, St. Joseph, MI.
  35. Losordo, T. M., P. W. Westerman and S. K. Liehr.  1994.  Water treatment and wastewater generation in intensive recirculating fish production systems. p. 27-36, In: Environmental Management in Aquaculture, Proceedings of Twenty-first US-Japan Meeting on Aquaculture, Kyoto, Japan, Nov. 26-27, 1992.  Bulletin of National Research I Supplement No. 1, May 1994.  K. Tanaka, K. Konishi, J. McVey and M. Collie (editors). 156 p.
  36. Losordo, T. M. and P. W. Westerman.  1991.  An analysis of biological, economic and engineering factors affecting the cost of fish production in recirculating aquaculture systems.  In:  Design of High-Density Recirculating Aquaculture Systems.  Proceedings of Workshop at Baton Rouge, LA, Sept. 25-27, 1991.  Louisiana Sea Grant College Program, LSU, Baton Rouge, LA.
  37. Sutton, A. L., L. M. Safley, G. L. Newton, T. A. McCaskey, J. P. Fontenot, C. R. Mote, D. C. Dobson, V. W. E. Payne, E. P. Lincoln and P. W. Westerman. 1990.  Value of animal wastes as fertilizer, feed and compost resource. In: Agricultural and Food Processing Waste, Proc. of the 6th Internatl. Symposium on Agric. and Food Processing Wastes, p. 494-503.  ASAE, St. Joseph, MI.
  38. Hill, D. T., G. L. Newton, R. A. Nordstedt, V. W. E. Payne, D. S. Rumsey, L. M. Safley, A. L. Sutton and P. W. Westerman.  1990. Parameters for efficient biological treatment of animal wastes. In: Agricultural and Food Processing  Waste, Proc. of the 6th Internatl. Symposium on Agric. and Food Processing Wastes, p. 515-524. ASAE, St. Joseph, MI.  p. 515-524.
  39. Safley, L. M., Jr. and P. W. Westerman.  1990.  Psychrophilic anaerobic digestion of dairy cattle manure. In: Agricultural and Food Processing Waste, Proc. of the 6th Internatl. Symposium on Agric. and Food Processing Wastes, p. 250-258.  ASAE, St. Joseph, MI.
  40. Westerman, P. W., L. M. Safley, Jr. and J. C. Barker.  1990.   Lagoon liquid nutrient variation over four years for lagoon with  recycle systems. In: Agricultural and Food Processing Waste, Proc. of the 6th Internatl. Symposium on Agric. and Food Processing Wastes, p. 41-49.  ASAE, St. Joseph, MI.
  41. Westerman, P. W. and J. C. Barker.  1989.  Nutrient availability from livestock wastes.  Proceedings of the Twenty-Fifth Annual North Carolina Irrigation Conference.  North Carolina Agricultural Extension Service and North Carolina Irrigation Society, Inc.  Raleigh, NC.
  42. Westerman, P. W. and L. M. Safley, Jr.  1988.  Effects of injector type, injector spacing, application timing and application rate on corn silage yields.  In: Storing, Handling and Spreading of Manure and Municipal Waste.  Proceedings of the Seminar of the 2nd and 3rd Technical Section of C.I.G.R., Sept. 20-22, 1988, Uppsala, Sweden.
  43. Safley, L. M., Jr. and P. W. Westerman.  1988,  Psychrophilic anaerobic digestion of animal wastes.  In: Storing, Handling and Spreading of Manure and Municipal Waste.  Proceedings of the Seminar of the 2nd and 3rd Technical Section of the C.I.G.R., Sept. 20-22, 1988, Uppsala, Sweden.
  44. Barker, J. C., P. W. Westerman and L. M. Safley, Jr.  1988.  Lagoon design and management for layer waste treatment and storage.  In: Proc. Poultry Waste Management Symposium, April 18-19, 1988, Columbus, OH.  p. 26-33.
  45. Taraba, J. L., L. Newton, L. M. Safley, Jr., P. W. Westerman. D. T. Hill, D. S. Ramsey, R. A. Nordstedt and R. O. Hegg.  1985.  Research in animal waste management in the southeastern U.S.  In: Agricultural Waste Utilization and Management.  Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Agricultural Wastes, p. 257-274.  ASAE, St. Joseph, MI.
  46. Safley, L. M., Jr., P. W. Westerman, L. D. King, J. C. Barker and D. T. Bowman.  1985.  Slurry dairy manure as a corn nutrient source.  In:Agricultural Waste Utilization and Management.  Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Agricultural Wastes, p. 211-221.  ASAE, St. Joseph, MI.
  47. Safley, L. M., Jr., P. W. Westerman and J. C. Barker.  1985.  Fresh dairy manure characteristics and barnlot nutrient losses.  In: Agricultural Waste Utilization and Management.  Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Agricultural Wastes, p. 191-199.  ASAE, St. Joseph, MI.
  48. Westerman, P. W., L. M. Safley, Jr., J. C. Barker and G. M. Chescheir, III.  1985.  Available nutrients in livestock waste.  In:  Agricultural Waste Utilization and Management.  Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Agricultural Wastes, p. 295-307.  ASAE, St. Joseph, MI.
  49. Westerman, P. W., L. M. Safley and J. C. Barker.  1985. Crystalline buildup in swine and poultry recycle flush systems.  In: Agricultural Waste Utilization and Management.  Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Agricultural Wastes, p. 613-623.  ASAE, St. Joseph, MI.
  50. Humenik, F. J., M. R. Overcash, J. C. Barker and P. W. Westerman. 1981.  Lagoons:  State-of-the-Art. In: Livestock Waste: A Renewable Resource.  Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Livestock Waste - 1980, p. 211-216.  ASAE, St. Joseph, MI.
  51. Westerman, P. W. and M. R. Overcash.  1981.  Short-term attenuation of runoff pollution potential for land-applied swine and poultry manure.  In: Livestock Waste: A Renewable Resource. Proceedings of 4th International Symposium on Livestock Wastes-1980, p. 289-292.  ASAE, St. Joseph, MI.
  52. Reddy, K. R., R. Khaleel, M. R. Overcash and P. W. Westerman. 1978.  Phosphorus-A potential nonpoint source pollution problem in the land areas receiving long-term application of wastes.  In: Best Management Practices for Agriculture and Silviculture.  Proceedings of the 1978 Cornell Agricultural Waste Management Conference. Rochester, NY, April 1978.  P. 193-211.  Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI.

G.  ASAE Papers Presented at Annual ASAE Meetings (Bold indicates presenter other than 1st author)

  1. Westerman, P. W., K. E. Bowers, K. D. Zering and M. E. Adcock.  2008.  Phosphorus recovery from covered digester effluent with a continuous-flow struvite crystallizer.  ASABE Paper No. 083892.  Presented at the 2008 ASABE International Meeting, Providence, RI, June 29-July 2.  ASABE, St. Joseph, MI.  13 pg.
  2. Shah, S. B., C. Baird, T. K. Marshall, P. W. Westerman, E. P. Harris, E. Oviedo, J. Grimes, T. Marsh-Johnson, D. Campeau, M. Adcock, and R. Munilla.  2008.  Acidifier dosage impacts on ammonia concentrations and emissions from heavy-broiler houses.  ASABE Paper No. 083922.  Presented at ASABE Annual International Meeting, Providence, RI, June 29-July 2. ASABE, St. Joseph, MI. 20 pg.
  3. Shah, S. B., T. K. Marshall, E. P. Harris, P. W. Westerman and R. D. Munilla.  2007.  An innovative wind tunnel for evaluating gaseous emissions from agricultural land or liquid surfaces.  ASABE Paper No.  074005.  Presented at the 2007 ASABE International Meeting, Minneapolis, MN, June 17-20.  ASABE, St. Joseph, MI.
  4. Westerman, P. W., J. Arogo Ogejo, G. L. Grabow and M. E. Adcock.  2006.  Swine anaerobic lagoon nutrient concentration variation with season, lagoon level, and rainfall. Presented at 2006 ASABE International Meeting, Portland, OR, 9-12 July 2006.  ASAE Paper No. 064146.  ASAE, St. Joseph, MI  9 pg. 
  5. Shah, S. B., P. W. Westerman, R. Munilla and G. Baughman.  2006.  A regenerating scrubber for reducing animal house emissions.  Presented at 2006 ASABE International Meeting, Portland, OR, 9-12 July 2006.  ASAE Paper No. 064041.  ASAE, St. Joseph, MI  (Poster and 1 pg paper)
  6. Westerman, P. W. and J. Arogo Ogejo.  2005. Centrifuge solids/liquid separation of swine flushed manure and lagoon sludge.  ASAE Paper No. 054080.  2005 ASAE Annual International Meeting, Tampa, Florida, July 17-20. 12 pg.  ASAE, St. Joseph, MI. 
  7. Westerman, P. W. and J. Arogo.  2004.  On farm performance of two solids/liquids separation systems for flushed swine manure.  ASAE Paper No. 044073.  2004 ASAE/CSAE Annual International Meeting, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, Aug. 1-4.  19 pg.  ASAE, St. Joseph, MI.
  8. Westerman, P. W., J. Arogo, A. Kantardjieff and P. Kantardjieff.  2003.  Evaluation of Ekokan biofiltration treatment system on a swine farm.  ASAE Paper No. 03-4125.  2003 ASAE Annual International Meeting, Las Vegas, Nevada, July 27-30, 2003.  16 pg.  ASAE, St. Joseph, MI.
  9. Bowers, K. E. and P. W. Westerman.  2003.  Phosphorus removal in a novel fluidized bed crystallizer.  ASAE Paper No. 03-4123.  2003 ASAE Annual International Meeting, Las Vegas, Nevada, July 27-30, 2003.  16 pg.  ASAE, St. Joseph, MI.
  10. Westerman, P. W. and J. Arogo.  2002.  Performance of the IESS biokinetic air waste treatment system on a swine farm.  ASAE Paper No. 02-4155, ASAE International Meeting, July 28 - 31, Chicago, IL.
  11. Arogo, J. and P. W. Westerman.  2002.  Proposed method for determining ammonia emission factors from confined swine feeding operations.  ASAE Paper No. 02-4085, ASAE Annual International Meeting, July 28 - 31, Chicago, IL.
  12. Havlin, J., S. Hodges, D. Osmond, A. Johnson, D. Crouse, W. Skaggs, R. Evans, J. Parsons, P. Westerman, L. Price, and R. Reich.  2002.  Assessing the risk of phosphorus delivery to north carolina waters.  ASAE Paper No. 02-2072, ASAE Annual International Meeting, July 28 - 31, Chicago, IL.
  13. Westerman, P. W. and J. Arogo.  2001.  Evaluation of IESS biokinetic air waste treatment system.  ASAE Paper No. 01-2293, ASAE Annual International Meeting, July 30 - Aug. 1, Sacramento, CA.
  14. Arogo, J., P. W. Westerman, A. J. Heber, W. P. Robarge and J. J. Classen.  2001.  Ammonia in animal production - A review.  ASAE Paper No. 01-4089, ASAE Annual International Meeting, July 30 - Aug. 1, Sacramento, CA.
  15. Westerman, P. W. and J. R. Bicudo.  1999.  Evaluation of the AWASH aerobic treatment and recycle system for flushed swine manure.  ASAE Paper No. 99-4094.  ASAE Annual International Meeting, July 18-22, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
  16. Westerman, P. W., J. R. Bicudo and Alexandra Kantardjieff.  1998. Aerobic fixed-media biofilter treatment of flushed swine manure.  ASAE Paper No. 98-4121, ASAE Annual International Meeting, Orlando, FL, July 12-16.
  17. Westerman, P. W. and J. R. Bicudo.  1998.  Tangential flow separation and chemical enhancement to recover swine manure solids and phosphorus.  ASAE Paper No. 98-4114, ASAE Annual International Meeting, Orlando, FL, July 12-16.
  18. Young, J. S., J. J. Classen, R. W. Bottcher, and P. W. Westerman.  1997.  Design, construction, and validation of a pilot-scale biofiltration system for the reduction of swine odor. ASAE Paper No. 974039.  ASAE, St. Joseph, MI. 8p. Annual ASAE International Meeting, Minneapolis, MN, Aug. 10-14.
  19. Hale, S. A., J. H. Young and P. W. Westerman.  1994.  Bioprocessing program development at North Carolina State University.  ASAE Paper No. 94-6608.  Hale at ASAE Meeting, Atlanta, GA.  Dec. 13-16, 1994.
  20. Westerman, P. W., R. L. Huffman and J. S. Feng.  1993.  Swine-lagoon seepage in sandy soils.  ASAE Paper No. 93-2531.  ASAE Winter Meeting.  Chicago, IL.  Dec. 14-17, 1993.
  21. Huffman, R. L. and P. W. Westerman.  1993.  Tracking seepage with terrain conductivity survey and wells.  ASAE Paper No. 93-4016.  ASAE Summer Meeting.  Spokane, WA.  June 20-23, 1993.
  22. Feng, J. S., R. L. Huffman and P. W. Westerman.  1992.  Modeling of chemical transport from agricultural waste lagoons.  ASAE Paper No. 92-2620.  ASAE Winter Meeting.  Nashville, TN.  Dec. 15-18, 1992.
  23. Huffman, R. L. and P. W. Westerman.  1991.  Seepage and electromagnetic terrain conductivity around new swine lagoons.  ASAE Paper No. 91-4016.  ASAE Summer Meeting.  Albuquerque, NM.  June 20-26, 1991.
  24. Losordo, T. M., J. E. Easley and P. W. Westerman.  1989.  The preliminary results of a feasibility study of fish production in recirculating aquaculture systems.  ASAE Paper No. 89-7557.  ASAE Winter Meeting. New Orleans, LA.  Dec. 1989.
  25. Lanier, A. L., P. W. Westerman and M. D. Smolen.  1989.  Computer assisted analysis of best management practices.  ASAE Paper No. 89-2531.  ASAE Winter Meeting.  New Orleans, LA.  Dec. 1989.
  26. Safley, L. M., Jr., J. C. Barker and P. W. Westerman. 1988.  Ammonia loss from irrigation of anaerobic lagoon liquid.  ASAE Paper No.  88-2574.  ASAE Winter Meeting.  Chicago, IL.  Dec. 1988.
  27. Safley, L. M., Jr. and P. W. Westerman.  1988. Anaerobic lagoon biogas recovery systems.  ASAE Paper No. 88-6603.  ASAE Winter Meeting.  Chicago, IL.  Dec. 1988.
  28. Westerman, P. W., W. L. Hankins and L. M. Safley, Jr. 1988. Nitrogen availability from poultry processing plant DAF sludge.  ASAE Paper No. 88-2054.  ASAE Summer Meeting.  Rapid City, SD.  June 1988.
  29. Westerman, P. W., L. M. Safley, Jr. and J. C. Barker.  1987.  Available nitrogen in broiler and turkey litter.  ASAE Paper No. 87-4053.  ASAE Summer Meeting.  Baltimore, MD.  June 1987.
  30. Safley, L. M., Jr., and P. W. Westerman.  1986.  Biogas generation from livestock anaerobic lagoons.  ASAE Paper No. 86-4542.  ASAE Winter Meeting, Chicago, IL.  Dec. 1986.
  31. Safley, L. M., Jr., P. W. Westerman and J. C. Barker.  1986.  Effect of manure injector type and spacing on corn yield.  ASAE Paper No. 86-4545.  ASAE Winter Meeting.  Chicago, IL. Dec. 1986.
  32. Chescheir, G. M., III, P. W. Westerman and L. M. Safley, Jr.  Laboratory methods for estimating available nitrogen in manures and sludges.  ASAE Paper No. 84-2645.  ASAE Winter Meeting.  New Orleans, LA.  Dec. 1984.
  33. Safley, L. M., Jr., P. W. Westerman, J. C. Barker and L. D. King.  Plant available nitrogen in slurry dairy manure.  ASAE Paper No. 84-2648.  ASAE Winter Meeting, New Orleans, LA.  Dec. 1984.
  34. Chescheir, G. M., III and P. W. Westerman.  1984. Rapid methods for determining fertilizer value of livestock manures.  ASAE Paper No. 84-4082.  ASAE Summer Meeting.  Knoxville, TN.  June 1984.
  35. Westerman, P. W., L. M. Safley, Jr. and J. C. Barker.  Potential harmful effects from land applying animal wastes.  ASAE Paper No. 83-2612.  ASAE Winter Meeting.  Chicago, IL.  Dec. 1983.
  36. Westerman, P. W., J. C. Burns, L. D. King, R. O. Evans and L. M. Safley, Jr.  Effects of applying swine lagoon effluent to coastal bermudagrass for ten years.  ASAE Paper No. 83-2123.  ASAE Summer Meeting.  Bozeman, MT.  June 1983.
  37. Safley, L. M., Jr., J. C. Barker and P. W. Westerman.  Modification of a slurry manure injector for plot research.  ASAE Paper No. 82-2504.  ASAE Winter Meeting.  Chicago, IL.  Dec. 1982.
  38. Safley, L. M., Jr., J. C. Barker, W. P. Robarge and P. W. Westerman.  Salt deposition in flush recycle systems.  ASAE Paper No. 82-4533.  ASAE Winter Meeting, Chicago, IL. Dec. 1982.
  39. Safley, L. M., Jr. and P. W. Westerman.  Enhancing manure value through the addition of chemicals.  ASAE Paper No. 81-2579. ASAE Winter Meeting.  Chicago, IL.  Dec. 1981.
  40. Evans, R. O., P. W. Westerman and M. R. Overcash.  Drainage water quality from land application of swine lagoon effluent.  ASAE Paper no. 81-2064.  ASAE Summer Meeting.  Orlando, FL.  June 1981.
  41. Westerman, P. W., T. L. Donnelly and M. R. Overcash.  Erosion of soil and manure after surface application of manure.  ASAE Paper No. 81-2108.  ASAE Summer Meeting.  Orlando, FL.  June 1981.
  42. Khaleel, R., G. R. Foster, K. R. Reddy, M. R. Overcash and P. W. Westerman.  Simulation of pollutant transport from land areas receiving animal wastes.  ASAE Paper No. 79-2003.  ASAE Summer Meeting.  Winnipeg, Canada.  June 1979.
  43. Bingham, S.C., M. R. Overcash and P. W. Westerman.  Effectiveness of grass buffer zones in eliminating pollutants in runoff from waste application sites.  ASAE Paper No. 78-2571.   ASAE Winter Meeting.  Chicago, IL.  Dec. 1978.
  44. Westerman, P. W., M. R. Overcash, J. C. Burns and L. D. King.  Fescue and coastal bermudagrass nutrient recovery from swine anaerobic lagoon effluent.  ASAE Paper No. 78-4561.   ASAE Winter Meeting.  Chicago, IL.  Dec. 1978.
  45. Khaleel, R., K. R. Reddy, M. R. Overcash and P. W. Westerman.  Transport of potential pollutants in runoff water from land areas receiving animal wastes:  A review.  ASAE Paper No. 78- 2058. ASAE Summer Meeting. Logan, UT.  June 1978.
  46. Overcash, M.R., F. J. Humenik, P. W. Westerman and J. C. Barker.  Prediction of effects of lagoon design variables - nitrogen conservation or removal.  ASAE Paper No. 77-4575.  ASAE Winter Meeting.  Chicago, IL.  Dec. 1977.
  47. Reddy, K. R., R. Khaleel, M. R. Overcash and P. W. Westerman.  Conceptual modelling of nonpoint source pollution from land areas receiving animal wastes I.  Nitrogen transformations.  ASAE Paper No. 77-4046.  ASAE Summer Meeting.  Raleigh, NC.  June 1977.
  48. Westerman, P. W., M. R. Overcash, J. C. Burns, L. D. King and F. J. Humenik.  Long-term fescue and coastal bermuda crop response to swine lagoon effluent.  ASAE Paper No. 77-2002.  ASAE Summer Meeting.  Raleigh, NC.  June 1977.
  49. Overcash, M.R., F. J. Humenik, P. W. Westerman, D. M. Covil and J. W. Gilliam.  Overland flow of poultry manure.  ASAE Paper no. 76-4517.   ASAE Winter Meeting.  Chicago, IL.  Dec. 1976.
  50. Westerman, P.W., B. J. Barfield, O. J. Loewer and J. N. Walker.  Predicting the temperature of a partially-wet leaf.  ASAE Paper No. 76-4501.  ASAE Winter Meeting, Chicago, IL. Dec. 1976.
  51. Humenik, F. J., M. R. Overcash, P. W. Westerman and J. C. Barker.  Management of lagoons for odor control.  ASAE Paper No. 76-4017.  ASAE Summer Meeting.  Lincoln, NE.  June 1976.
  52. Barfield, B. J., P. W. Westerman and T. C. Bridges.  Predicting evaporation under varying atmospheric stability.  ASAE Paper No. 74-4007.  ASAE Summer Meeting.  Stillwater, OK.  June 1974.

H.  Published Abstracts (Bold indicates the presenter other than first author)

  1. Losordo, T. M., D. P. DeLong and P. W. Westerman.  2004.  Waste generation, treatment and minimization in production of warm freshwater finfish.  WAS Aquaculture 2004 Conference and Tradeshow,  March 1-5, Honolulu, Hawaii. World Aquaculture Society.
  2. Losordo, T. M., D. P. Delong and P. W. Westerman.  2003.  Appropriate designs for the on-site treatment and utilization of wastes in rural, farm-based, freshwater recirculating systems: An overview of critical considerations with emphasis on economic viability.  Aquaculture Europe 2003, August 8-12, Trondheim, Norway.  European Aquaculture Society (EAS) and Aquaculture Engineering Society (AES). 4 pg. Abstract.
  3. Losordo, T. M., P. W. Westerman and J. Twarowska.  1995.  Operational characteristics of an intensive fish production system utilizing an advanced solids removal and water treatment system.  In:  Aquaculture '95 Book of Abstracts, World Aquaculture Society, p. 164.  Presented at World Aquaculture Society Meeting.  San Diego, CA.  Feb. 1-4, 1995.
  4. Westerman, P. W., T. M. Losordo and J. M. Hinshaw.  1995.  Trout and tilapia manure characteristics and nitrogen mineralization rates.  In:  Aquaculture '95 Book of Abstracts, World Aquaculture Society, p. 243.  Presented at World Aquaculture Society Meeting.  San Diego, CA.  Feb. 1-4, 1995.
  5. Hargrove, L. L., P. W. Westerman and T. M. Losordo.  1994.  Nitrification in three-stage versus single-stage floating-bead biofilter in a lab-scale recirculating system.  In:  World Aquaculture Society Book of Abstracts, World Aquaculture '94, p. 43. Presented at World Aquaculture Society Meeting.  New Orleans, LA.  Jan. 14-18, 1994.
  6. Westerman, P. W., T. M. Losordo and R. H. Piedrahita.  1991.  Review of biological nitrification alternatives for recirculating aquaculture systems. WAS Abstracts 22(3):64A.  Presented at 22nd Annual Conference and Exposition, World Aquaculture Society, San Juan, Puerto Rico.  June 16-20, 1991.
  7. Khaleel, R., G. R. Foster, K. R. Reddy, M. R. Overcash and P. W. Westerman.  Predicting sediment transport from land areas receiving animal wastes.  Transactions of American Geophysical Union 59(4), April 1978.  Presented at Spring Meeting of American Geophysical Union, Miami Beach, FL.  April 1978.
  8. Reddy, K. R., R. Khaleel, M. R. Overcash and P. W. Westerman.  1977.  Evaluation of nitrogen and phosphorus transformations in the soil-manure system in relation to nonpoint source pollution.  1977 Agronomy Abstracts, p. 33. Presented at 1977 Annual Meeting of American Society of Agronomy. Los Angeles, CA.  Nov. 1977.
  9. Pal, D., M. R. Overcash, P. W. Westerman and L. D. King.  1977.  Soil assimilatory capability of toxic anionic waste constituents.  1977 Agronomy Abstracts, p. 35.  Presented at 1977 Annual Meeting of American Society of Agronomy. Los Angeles, CA.  Nov. 1977.

I. Theses as Advisor

  1. Saliling, Willie Jones B.  2005.   Denitrification of aquaculture wastewater using agricultural by-products as biofilter media.  M.S. Thesis, N. C. State University, Raleigh, NC.  181 p. (Co-Directed with Tom Losordo)
  2. Bowers, Keith E.  2002.  Development of a Struvite Crystallizer for Reducing Phosphorus in Effluent from Livestock Waste Lagoons.  Unpublished Ph. D. Dissertation.  N. C. State University, Raleigh, NC. 196 p.
  3. Sun, Ye.  2002.  Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Rye Straw and Bermudagrass for Ethanol Production.  Unpublished Ph. D. Dissertation.  N. C. State University, Raleigh, NC.  128 p.  (Co-Directed with Dr. Jay Cheng)
  4. Liang, Zhihua Samuel.  2000.  Modeling Ammonia Emission from Swine Anaerobic Lagoons. M. S. Thesis. N. C. State University, Raleigh, NC.  82 p.
  5. Davidson, Kevin D.  1995.  Measurement of Odors from Swine Production and Waste Treatment Facilities. M. S. Thesis. N. C. State University, Raleigh, NC.   95 p. (Co-Directed with L. M. Safley, Jr.)
  6. Twarowska, Joanna G.  1995.  Evaluation of an Intensive Recirculating Fish Production System.  M. S. Thesis. N. C. State University, Raleigh, NC.  98 p.  (Co-Directed with Tom Losordo)
  7. Hargrove, Linda L.  1993.  Nitrification in a Three-stage versus a Single-stage Floating-bead Biofilter in Lab-scale Recirculating Systems. M. S. Thesis. N. C. State University, Raleigh, NC.  130 p. (Co-Directed with Tom Losordo)
  8. Hankins, Walter L.  1991.  Nitrogen Mineralization of Dissolved Air Flotation Poultry Processing Plant Sludges. M. S. Thesis. N. C. State University, Raleigh, NC.  74 p.
  9. Lanier, Alicia L.  1990.  Database for Evaluating the Water Quality Effectiveness of Best Management Practices. M. S. Thesis. N. C. State University, Raleigh, NC.  138 p.
  10. Chescheir, George M., III.  1984.  Rapid Methods for Determining the Nutrient Content and Nitrogen Availability in Liquid Manure.  M. S. Thesis. N. C. State University, Raleigh, NC.  75 p.
  11. Donnelly, Timothy L.  1981.  A Laboratory Investigation on the Erosion of Soil and Manure after Surface Application of Poultry Manure. M. S. Thesis. N. C. State University, Raleigh, NC.  152 p.
  12. Evans, Robert E., Jr.  1981.  Long-Term Agronomic and Environmental Effects of Swine Lagoon Effluent Applications.  M. S. Thesis. N. C. State University, Raleigh, NC.  193 p.
  13. Crane, Stuart R., Jr.  1978.  A Laboratory Investigation of the Short-Term Chemical and Microbial Transformations in the Soil Following Surface Application of Poultry Manure.  M. S. Thesis. N. C. State University, Raleigh, NC.  211 p.
  14. Bingham, Samuel C.  1978.  The Effect of Grass Buffer Zone Length on Runoff of Pollutants from Land Application Sites.  M. S. Thesis.  N. C. State University, Raleigh, NC.  137 p.

II. ADDITIONAL PRESENTATIONS AT MEETINGS 

A.  Presentations That I Made:

  1. Westerman, P. W., K. E. Bowers, K. D. Zering and M. E. Adcock.  2008.  Phosphorus removal from covered-digester effluent with a continuous-flow struvite system.  Poster presented at S-1032 Multi-state Research Project annual meeting in Boulder, CO, May 28-30.
  2. Westerman, P. W.  2008.  Water quality issues with nutrients and metals from swine manure management.  Invited presentation at workshop on Water Quality Research and Extension Needs sponsored by National Pork Board and US Pork Center of Excellence, Feb. 28-29, Clive, IA.

  3. Westerman, P. W.     “Alternative Waste Management Technologies Evaluated for Pig Farms in the U.S.  Invited presentation at the Balkanic Pig Breeders’ Days, May 26, 2006, Brasov, Romania.  Trip (May 24-28) supported by the USAID-funded project Romania Agribusiness Development Program (RADP), administered by Chemonics International, Inc., Washington, DC.
  4. Westerman, P. W.  Environmental issues in agriculture.  Invited presentation at Henderson County Kentucky Agricultural Appreciation Breakfast, Henderson, KY  (over 300 attendees).  March 14, 2006.
  5. Westerman, P. W.  “Swine Manure Treatment Demonstration Projects in North Carolina”.  Invited Presentation at the 2003 Livestock Manure Management Conference, Bloomington, IL.  March 11, 2003.
  6. Westerman, P. W.  “Sludge Evaluation and Removal Consideration for Animal Waste Lagoons”.  Presented at Thirty-Eighth North Carolina Irrigation Conference, Raleigh, NC.  November 6, 2002.
  7. Westerman, P. W.   "Animal Waste Management Strategies".  Presented at the Annual N. C. Water Resources Research Conference, Raleigh, NC.  March 25, 1999.
  8. Westerman, P. W.  "Ekokan Animal Waste Management Treatment".  Presented at Neuse River Basin Conference.  New Bern, NC. Nov. 9, 1998.
  9. Westerman, P. W.  Session summary and synthesis for "Reducing Waste by Treating Manure".   Presented at conference Research Toward Optimal Manure Management Systems, held with International Conference on Odor, Water Quality, Nutrient Management and Socioeconomic Issues.  Des Moines, IA.  July 18-22, 1998.
  10. Westerman, P. W.  "Animal Waste Treatment Technologies".  Presented at conference Expanding Market for Environmental Technologies, The Bottom Line.  Sponsored by The World Trade Center North Carolina and the N. C. Environmental Technologies Consortium.  Durham, NC.  March 6, 1998.
  11. Westerman, P. W. and J. C. Barker.  "Nutrient Availability from Livestock Wastes".  Presented at the Twenty-Fifth Annual North Carolina Irrigation Conference. Raleigh, NC. Jan. 12, 1989.
  12. Westerman, P. W.  "Field Methods for Nutrient Analysis of Livestock Wastes".  Presented at the Rural Clean Water Program Workshop, Hilton Inn, Raleigh, NC.  April 2, 1984.
  13. Westerman, P. W. and L. D. King.  "General Guidelines for Land Treatment of Wastewater in NC".  Presented at Water Resources Research Institute Workshop on Land Treatment.  Raleigh, NC. May 31, 1983.
  14. Cummings, G. A., J. C. Burns, R. E. Sneed, M. R. Overcash and F. J. Humenik.  1975.  Plant and soil effects of swine lagoon effluent applied to coastal bermuda grass.  In: Managing Livestock Wastes, Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Livestock Wastes.  Urbana-Champaign, IL.  April 21-24, 1975.  ASAE, St. Joseph, MI. (Presented at symposium by P. W. Westerman)

B.   Presentations by Other Authors

  1. Yao, H., S. B. Shah, D. H. Willits, P. W. Westerman, W. P. Robarge, L. Wang, T. K. Marshall, and C. L. Baird. 2009.  Ammonia emission rate from broiler litter stockpiles in a shed. ASABE Paper No. 096417.  Presented at ASABE Annual International Meeting, Reno, Nevada, June 21-24. ASABE, St. Joseph, MI. (paper not submitted)

  2. Blunden, J., V. P. Aneja and P. W. Westerman.  2006.  Characterization of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions from a swine farm in North Carolina.  Presented at 232nd American Chemical Society (ACS) National Meeting, Sept. 10-14, 2006.  San Francisco, CA.
  3. Losordo, T.M., D.P. DeLong, and P.W. Westerman.  2004.  Translating kinetics to economics: comparative costs of different biofilter systems. Invited presentation at a workshop on the “Design and Selection of Biological Filters for Freshwater and Marine Applications,” November 8 – 11, 2004, The Aquaculture Interchange Program, University of Hawaii, East-West Center, Honolulu, Hawaii. USA.
  4. Huffman, R. L. and P. W. Westerman.  1995.  Electromagnetic terrain conductivity survey methods for detection of seepage plumes from animal waste lagoons.  Presented by Huffman at Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems, Orlando, FL.  April 23-25, 1995.
  5. Losordo, T. M. and P. W. Westerman.  1991.  Engineering a economically optimum system.  Presented by Losordo at Workshop on Design of High Density Recirculating Aquaculture Systems, LA. State University, Sept. 25-27, 1991.
  6. Safley, L. M., Jr. and P. W. Westerman. 1986.  Anaerobic lagoon gas recovery system.  Presented at the Fourth Southern Biomass Energy Research Conference.  Athens, GA.  Oct. 1986.
  7. Reddy, K. R., R. Khaleel, M. R. Overcash and P. W. Westerman.  Nonpoint source model for land areas receiving animal wastes:  nitrogen and phosphorus.  Presented at 1978 Annual Meeting of American Society of Agronomy.  Chicago, IL.  Dec. 1978.
  8. Reddy, K. R., M. R. Overcash, R. Khaleel and P. W. Westerman.  Phosphorus adsorption-desorption characteristics of the soils utilized for disposal of wastes.  Presented at 11th Congress of International Society of Soil Science.  Edmonton, Canada.  June 1978.
  9. Pal, D., M. R. Overcash and P. W. Westerman.  Methodology for design of pretreatment-land application systems for industrial wastes.  Presented at 70th Annual AIChE Meeting.  New York City, NC.  Nov. 1977.
  10. Pal, D., M. R. Overcash and P. W. Westerman.  Plant-soil assimilative capacity for organic solvent constituents in industrial wastes.  Presented at 32nd Annual Purdue Industrial Waste Conference.  Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN.  May 1977.
  11. Pal, D., M. R. Overcash and P. W. Westerman.  Land disposal of acidic, basic and salty wastes from industries.  Presented at 1977 National Conference on Treatment and Disposal of Industrial Wastewaters and Residues.  Houston, TX.  April 1977.
  12. Humenik, F. J., J. C. Barker, M. R. Overcash and P. W. Westerman.  Management and design of animal waste lagoons.  Presented at International Soil Conservation Society of American Annual Technical Meeting.  Minneapolis, MN.  August 1976.
  13. Overcash, M. R. and P. W. Westerman. Pretreatment land application for small municipalities.  Presented at CHEMPOR '75, Lisbon, Portugal. Sept. 1975.

III.  GRANTS AND CONTRACTS

  1. Grant from NRCS CIG/National Fish and Wildlife Foundation.  “Effective strategies for biogas and nutrient management resulting from anaerobic digestion in covered swine lagoons”, $457,433,  M. Veal, P. Westerman, J. Cheng, A. Stomp, K. Zering.  9/1/08-6/30/11.
  2. Grant from National Pork Board, "Phosphorus recovery from concentrated wastewater with a continuous-flow struvite crystallizer", $38,148, 5/1/07-5/1/09. PI.
  3. Grant from NC Pork Council, “Manure and nutrient characterization for flushed manure for use in design criteria for innovative treatment technologies”, $11,527, 7/1/06-6/30/07. PI.
  4. Grant from USDA, “Litter amendment and improved diet impacts on broiler ammonia emissions and productivity”, $499,754, 1/1/06-3/31/08.  Co-Investigator (Shah is PI).
  5. Grant from WRRI, “Determining plant available nitrogen in hog anaerobic lagoon effluent applied with traveling gun and drag hose systems, $30,000, 7/1/05-5/31/06.  Co-investigator (Shah is PI).
  6. Grant from USDA, “Characterization and Fate of Ammonia and Hydrogen Sulfide from Animal Feeding Operations: Their Emission, Transport, Transformations, Deposition, and Impact on Fine Particulate Matter”, $479,818 total project with $27,029 to Westerman and Shah, 04/01/04 – 03/31/07.  Co-investigator (Aneja is PI).
  7. Grant from NCSU Research and Graduate Studies, “An improved wind tunnel to measure ammonia volatilization from land and lagoon surfaces”, $4,000, 2004-2005.  Cooperator (Shah is PI).
  8. Grant from Animal & Poultry Waste Management Center, “A regenerating scrubber for reducing animal house emissions”, $21,900, 2004-2005.  Co-investigator (Shah is PI).
  9. Grant from NC Pork Council, "Effects of Lagoon Pump Down to Below "Stop-Pump" Level, $14, 777, 07/01/04-06/30/06.  Leader.
  10. Grant from Animal & Poultry Waste Management Center (Funding from Smithfield Foods, Inc. per N. C. Attorney General Agreement), "Biomass Energy Sustainable Technology Performance Verification", $150,003, 07/01/01-12/31/04.  Leader.
  11. Grant from Animal & Poultry Waste Management Center (Funding from Smithfield Foods, Inc. per N. C. Attorney General Agreement), "Ekokan Biofiltration Technology Performance Verification", $150,379, 1/1/01-12/31/04.  Leader.
  12. Grant from N. C. Pork Council and N. C. ARS, "Removal of Phosphates and Ammonia from Lagoon Effluent by Struvite Crystallization", $29,785 ($14,985 from NCPC and $14,800 from NC ARS), 7/1/00-06/30/02.  Leader.
  13. Grant from N. C. Legislature through NCSU APWMC "IESS Biokinetic Air Systems Waste Treatment System Evaluation", $127,542 with $60,660 to NCSU; additional $138,074 value of partner contributions from IESS and Carroll's Foods, Inc., 4/1/00-6/30/04.  Leader.
  14. Grant from N. C. Legislature through NCSU APWMC "Environmental Renewal Technologies Centrifuge/Ammonia Recovery Waste Treatment Technology Evaluation", $80,047 with $53,073 to NCSU; additional $29,986 value of partner contributions from Environmental Renewal Technologies, LLC, 4/1/00-6/30/04. Leader.
  15. Grant from N. C. Legislature through NCSU APWMC "EcoRenew Combustion/Evaporation Waste Treatment Technology Evaluation", $48,210 with $38,210 to NCSU; additional $21,700 value of partner contributions from EcoRenew, Inc., 4/1/00-3/31/02.  Leader. (Terminated by EcoRenew and $26,000 transferred to IESS and ERT projects listed above.)
  16. Grant from N. C. Agriculture Foundation "Innovative Technologies for Animal Waste Management Utilization", $35,000 (graduate student support for 2.5 years), 8/77-2/00.  Leader.
  17. Grant from Corn Growers Association of N. C. "Influence of water management on availability and leaching of nutrients derived from livestock waste", $14,000, 2/98-1/00. Cooperator.
  18. Grant from EPA 319 Nonpoint Source Program through N. C. DEM "Implementation, evaluation and demonstration of BMPs to reduce the impact of animal wastewater irrigation on water quality in the Little Chinquapin Creek", $134,670, 1995-1998.  Cooperator.
  19. Grant from Corn Growers Association of N. C. "Influence of water management on availability and leaching of nutrients derived from livestock waste", $7,000, 1997-1998.  Cooperator.
  20. Grant from NC DEHNR through NCSU Animal & Poultry Waste Management Center "AWASH Aeration System for Treatment of Flushed Swine Manure", $76,000, 3/97-12/99.  Leader.
  21. Grant from NC DEHNR through NCSU Animal & Poultry Waste Management Center "Solids Separation and Stabilization and Aerobic Biofilter Treatment of Flushed Swine Manure", $49,500 with $43,500 to NCSU; additional $80,000 value of partner contribution from EKOKAN, Inc., 11/96-3/00.  Leader.
  22. Grant from NC DEHNR through NCSU Animal & Poultry Waste Management Center "Nitrification and Denitrification Treatment of Flushed Swine Manure", $140,000 with $27,000 to NCSU; additional $19,000 value of partner contributions from National Environmental Technologies (NET), Inc. and Carroll's Foods, Inc., 11/96-3/00.  Leader.
  23. Grant from NC DEHNR through NCSU Animal & Poultry Waste Management Center "A Field-Scale Evaluation of a Mobile Tangential Flow Separator to Recover Swine Manure Solids", $67,400 with $22,600 to NCSU BAE Dept.; additional $16,245 value of partner contributions from Gaston County Dyeing Machine Co. and Murphy Family Farms, Inc., 11/96-3/00.  Leader.
  24. Grant from NC ARS through North Carolina State/Iowa State Waste Management Research Consortium "Chemical Amendments to Enhance Swine Manure Liquid-Solids Separation and Stabilization of By-Products", $11,500, 7/96-6/97.  PI.
  25. Grant from CSRS, USDA through NC ARS "Optimizing the Use of Livestock and Poultry Manures as a Co-Substrate and Source of Inorganic Nutrients for the Biodegradation of Hazardous Compounds", $65,000, 2/95-12/96.  Co-Investigator.
  26. Grant from CSRS, USDA through NC ARS "Utilizing By-Products to Clean Air in Swine Buildings", $18,000, 2/95-12/96.  Co-Investigator.
  27. Grant from CSRS, USDA through NC ARS "Recovery of Solids from Flushed Swine Manure for Utilization", $103,500, 2/95-12/96.  Co-Leader.
  28. Grant from North Carolina Agricultural Service Animal Waste Utilization Program "A System for Development of Value-Added Products from Swine Manure and Peanut Shells", $20,000, 9/94-6/95.  Cooperator.
  29. Grant from North Carolina Agricultural Research Service Animal Waste Utilization Program "Biofilter for Removing Odorous Compounds in Exhaust from Swine Buildings", $16,233, 9/94-6/95.  Co-Investigator.
  30. Contract with AGA AB and AGA Gas, Inc. "An Evaluation of the Ecofish Tank System Technology for Use in Intensive Warmwater Fish Production Utilizing Water Reuse Technology", $55,043, 12/93-11/94.  Co-Investigator.
  31. Contract with N. C. Pork Producers Assoc., Inc. "Ground Water Impact of Irrigation of Swine Lagoon Effluent on Sandy Soils with High Water Table", $8,000, 8/9/94-9/30/95.  PI.
  32. Memorandum of Agreement with Prestage Farms, Inc. "Ground Water Impact of Swine Lagoon Effluent on Sandy Soil with High Water Table", $8,000, 4/15/93-3/30/94.  PI.
  33. Grant from Energy Division, N. C. Dept. of Economic and Community Development "The Demonstration of Coldwater Fish Production in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems", $73,208, 7/94-12/95.  Cooperator.
  34. Grant from Energy Division, N. C. Dept. of Economic and Community Development "A Demonstration of Recirculating Fish Production Technology for the Piedmont of North Carolina.  The North Carolina Fish Barn Project Phase III: Transfer of Energy Efficient Fish Production Technology to the Piedmont of N. C.", $80,924, 1/94-12/95.  Cooperator.
  35. Contract with North Carolina Pork Producers Association "Evaluation of Ground Water Impacts of Established Lagoons in Coastal Plain Soils", $18,000, 10/92-12/93.  Co-Investigator.
  36. Contract with North Carolina Pork Producers Association "Ammonia volatilization resulting from irrigated applications of anaerobic lagoon liquid: Parts I and II", $18,000, 10/92-12/93.  Cooperator.
  37. Cooperative Agreement with USDA Southern Regional Aquaculture Center "Modeling Wastewater Treatment Systems for Aquaculture Effluents", $45,000, 5/91-5/94.  Co-Investigator.
  38. Research Assistantship from N. C. Agricultural Foundation "Water Treatment and System Optimization for Intensive Recirculating Aquaculture Production Systems", $32,000.  Co-Chair of Graduate Advisory Committee.
  39. Grant from Southeastern Regional Biomass Energy Program (SERBEP), Tennessee Valley Authority for the U. S. Dept. of Energy "Psychrophilic Anaerobic Digestion of Livestock Manures", $31,538, 7/91-7/92.  Cooperator.
  40. Grant from Energy Division, N. C. Dept. of Economic and Community Development " The Demonstration of Coldwater Fish Production in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems", $130,000, 10/91-6/94.  Cooperator.
  41. Grant from N. C. Dept. of Economic and Community Development "The Demonstration of Finfish Production in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems in the Piedmont of North Carolina", $197,500, 12/89-12/93.  Co-Investigator.
  42. Cooperative agreement with USDA Southern Regional Aquaculture Center "Characterization of Finfish and Shellfish Aquacultural Effluents", $30,000, 1991-1993.  Co-Investigator.
  43. Contract with North Carolina Pork Producers Association "Environmentally Sound Management and Utilization of Livestock Manure", $30,000, 10/15/91-10/14/92.  Co-principal Investigator.
  44. Grant from National Pork Producers Council "Environmentally Sound Management and Utilization of Livestock Manure", $18,000, 10/15/91-10/14/92.  Co-Principal Investigator.
  45. Grant from N. C. Agricultural Foundation.  "Characterization of Production Unit Wastes and Effluents from Rainbow Trout Farms", $4,118, 7/90-6/91.  Co-Principal Investigator.
  46. Cooperative Agreement with USDA-SCS (Subcontract with Clemson University).  "Terrain Conductivity to Quantify Impact of Farm Lagoons Upon Groundwater Quality", $99,000, 4/90-5/94.  Co-Principal Investigator and Project Manager.
  47. Grant from USDA-CSRS (Subcontract with Clemson University).  "Terrain Conductivity to Quantify Impact of Farm Lagoons Upon Groundwater Quality", $26,000, 1989-1991.  Co-Principal Investigator and Project Manager.
  48. Grant from U.S. EPA, Global Change Division.  "Global Methane Emissions from Livestock and Poultry Manure", $76,855, 1989.  Cooperator.
  49. Grant from USDA.  "Composted Litter - Economics and Market Potential of a Renewable Resource", $15,000, 1989.  Co-Investigator.
  50. Grant from N. C. Department of Commerce.  "Psychrophilic Anaerobic Digestion of Dairy Manure", $46,000, 6/13/88 - 6/30/90.  Cooperator.
  51. Grants from North Carolina Dairy Foundation.  "Psychrophilic Anaerobic Digestion of Dairy Manure", $29,300, 1988-6/92.  Cooperator.
  52. Grant from International Lead Zinc Research Organization, Inc.  "Corrossivity of Various Metal Products Exposed to Different Types of Animal Manures",  $54,614, 1/86 - 12/94.  Co-Leader.
  53. Grant from Tennessee Valley Authority, Administrator for Southeastern Regional Biomass Energy Program, U. S. Department of Energy. "Construction and Monitoring of a Lagoon Gas Recovery System", $39,018, 18 months, 1985-1986.  Cooperator.
  54. Memorandum of Agreement with R. E. Parnell Farms, Inc. of Parkton, North Carolina.  Trust #98547.  "Elimination of Salt Buildup in Swine Waste Flushing Systems", $6,000, 05/01/83 - 09/30/84.  Co-Leader.
  55. Memorandum of Agreement with A. O. Smith Harvestore Products Inc. Trust #97034.  "Monitoring an Anaerobic Digester on the Darrell Smith Poultry Farm",  $19,000, 08/01/83 - 07/31/85.  Cooperator.
  56. Memorandum of Agreement with A. O. Smith Harvestore Products Inc. Trust #98358, "Utilization of Animal Manure as a Fertilizer Replacement", $30,000, 03/01/82 - 02/28/85.  Cooperator.
  57. EPA Grant R806421, "Toxic and Priority Pollutant Organics in Municipal Sludge Land Treatment Systems", $422,156, 10/03/79 - 04/02/83.  Cooperator.
  58. Water Resources Research Institute Matching Grant B-122-NC, "Land Application of Organic Priority Pollutant", $100,000, 10/1/78 - 9/30/80.  Cooperator.
  59. Water Resources Research Institute Annual Allotment Grant.  "Economic and Technical Evaluation of Animal Waste Management Systems Which Comply with Water Pollution Regulations", $34,661, 07/ 01/77 - 06/30/79.  Co-principal Investigator.
  60. Water Resources Research Institute Matching Grant B-100-NC, "Land Application of Industrial Wastes", $73,684, 10/01/76 - 9/30/78.  Cooperator.
  61. EPA Grant R805011,  "Nonpoint Source Model:  Watershed Input from Land Areas Receiving Animal Wastes", $216,974, 10/16/76 - 10/25/78.  Co-principal Investigator.
  62. EPA Grant R804608, "Mechanism and Control of Rainfall Runoff Impact from Land Application Sites", $76,802, 7/5/76 - 7/4/79.  Co-principal Investigator and Project Manager.
  63. Memorandum of Agreement "Lagoon Treatment Enhancement", Ecological Associates, Inc., Hickory, N.C., $9,600.  1976.  Cooperator.
  64. CSRS, USDA Grant, "Alternative Swine Waste Pretreatment - Land Disposal Systems", $75,000.  1975.  Cooperator.
  65. Water Resources Research Institute Matching Grant B-067- NC,"Overland Flow Poultry Manure Treatment System", $49,734.  1975.  Cooperator.
  66. EPA Grant R804002, "Swine Wastes:  State-of-the-Art and Rainfall Research", $34,960.  1975. Cooperator.

See current Active Departmental Grants